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Anthony Podbielski

on 17 February 2014

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Transcript of Nutrition

- The science of optimal cellular metabolism and its impact on health and disease.

- It's the process by which the body ingests, absorbs, transports uses and eliminates nutrients and foods.

Adequate diet is necessary for:
- Maintenance of bodily functions
- Healthy tissues
- Body temperature
- Promote healing
- Build resistance to infection
Energy is provided by macronutrients
- Carbohydrates (4 kcal/g)
- Proteins (4 kcal/g)
- Fats (9 kcal/g)

So as you can see, fats are good in moderation...

Vitamins & Minerals
- Essential to the body in small quantities for growth, development, maintenance, and reproduction
- Do NOT supply energy
- Vitamins are either fat-soluble (excess stored in liver or adipose tissue) or water-soluble (excess is excreted in urine)
- Minerals help build body tissues and regulate metabolism
- There are more than 25 known minerals in the adult body
Some key terms to know when talking about Nutrition:
- nutrients the body uses in relatively large amounts.
- substances used by the body in small quantities.
- compounds in plants that have a beneficial effect on the body.
- the amount of heat required to raise 1 kg of water 1° C
- condition that results from eating a diet in which certain nutrients are lacking, in excess, or in the wrong proportions
Everything is important!
Macro and micro alike are important to help maintain homeostasis within the body and help to promote normal nutrition in us all!
- Composed of amino acids
- Functions include:
Hemoglobin (for carrying O2)
Insulin (for blood glucose regulation)
Albumin (for regulating osmotic pressure in the blood)
- Major part of most living cells and play a part in our immune system
- Composed of simple, and complex sugars
- Functions include:
Oxidizing fats in normal fat metabolism
Promote good bacterial growth in GI tract
Dietary fiber (stimulates peristalsis)
- loss of muscle mass occuring in extreme malnutrion

- extreme edema
- levels of albumin in blood serum are abnormally low
Malnutrition goes both ways....
This is such a thing as too much of a good thing.
Types of proteins and their food sources
Complete proteins
: meat, fish, poultry, milk, cheese, and eggs

Partially complete proteins

Incomplete proteins
: dried peas and beans, peanut butter, seeds, fruits and vegetables, bread, cereal, rice, and pasta

Types of carbohydrates and their food sources
Simple carbohydrates
: sugars, syrups, molasses, honey, fruit, and milk

Complex carbohydrates
: bread, cereal, potatoes, rice, pasta, crackers, flour products, and legumes
- Composed of neutral fats, oils, fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids
- Functions inlcude:
Cellular transport
Protection of vital organs
Provision of energy
Vitamin absorption
Transport of fat-solubl vitamins (A,D,E,K)
- Ideally makes up 20% of healthy body weight
Types of fat and their food sources:
Saturated Fats:
coconut oil, palm oil, palm kernel oil
Unsaturated Fats
: fish and vegetable sources
Trans Fatty Acid
: fried and baked goods
Risk factors for nutrition problems
- Everyone is potentially at risk
- Socioeconomic status and race or ethnicity can influence risk
- As always, the very young and the very old are at greater risk
Signs and Symptoms of Malnutrition
- Thin, easily breakable hair
- Skin that is slow to heal
- Lethargy
- Pale color
- Bradycardia
- Hypotension
- and many more....
Specific Risk Factors
- Genetics
- Lifestyle
- Inconsistent eating patterns
- Conditions that affect oral intake
- Conditions associated with impaired digestion
- Conditions associated with impaired metabolism
Lab Tests and their values
: Male 21.6 mg/dL
Female 18 mg/dL
Serum Albumin
: 3.5 - 5.0 g/dL
: Male 0.4 - 0.54
Female 0.36 - 0.46
: Male 13.5 - 18 g/dL
8.4 -11.2 mmol/L
Female 12 - 15 g/dL
7.45 - 9.31 mmol/L
- Defined as high blood cholesterol

HDL = good
LDL = bad
Can be caused by genetics or a disease
Kidney Disease
Underactive thyroid, etc...
Screening should be done starting at age 35 in men and 45 in women
Iron-deficiency Anemia
When your body does not have enough iron, it will make fewer red blood cells or red blood cells that are too small

- The most common form of anemia
- May result from a diet chronically deficient in iron, blood loss, chronic disease, pregnancy and lactation, diarrhea, and other nutritional deficiencies
- S/S: excessive fatigue, lethargy, and poor resistance to infection
- Treatment: Iron supplements and well-balanced diet
Protein-Calorie Malnutrition
- Inadequate protein intake
- Affects children the most because they have less protein intake
- Can be secondary to disease (E.g., renal disease or cancer)
Treatment: Nutritional supplement and diet adjustment
- BMI of 30 or more
- A person gains weight when he or she takes in more calories than the body needs
- Treatment: Severe diet adjustment, exercise, counseling (both indiviudal and family), hormone therapy (if indicated)
Treatment: diet change and possible medications
Full transcript