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Chapter 4- Ancient Chinese Civilization
Transcript of Chapter 4- Ancient Chinese Civilization
*This dynasty was the longest-lasting of the three dynasties.
*They granted territories to members of the royal family and their allies.
*Their positions were hereditary, but each generation had to renew its pledge of loyalty.
*Zhou believed that the god of Heaven determined who should rule China, a right known as “Mandate of Heaven”.
*Chinese tradition has it that the quality of the Zhou kings also declined at this time. (700 B.C)
*The Zhou dynasty lasted for 500 more years but had lost much of its power.
*By the 400s B.C the Zhou had no real power outside their own city-state. The Zhou Dynasty *This dynasty received its name from the title that Liu Bang took- King of Han
*The Han ruled a centralized ad growing empire.
*They kept the power for about 400 years.
*The longest-ruling Han emperor was Liu Ch’e, commonly known as Wu Ti.
*They established a centralized civil service system to govern China.
*The Han created a system of examinations to select the most qualified candidates.
*Liu Ch’e established an imperial university to train people for government service. The Han Dynasty *Liu Ch’e began an economic policy which some scholars called leveling to solve this problem.
*The government used price controls to balance the economic effects of farm surpluses or shortages.
*Through military conquest and the establishment of military colonies, Liu Ch’e greatly expanded China’s control in Asia.
*Silk Road, trade route stretched from China across central Asia to the Mediterranean region.
*China’s population grew to about 50 million during the Han dynasty.
*None of Liu Ch’e’s Han successors matched his leadership abilities.
*Not until A.D 581 did a Chinese general unify China once again. The Han Dynasty *The Qin dynasty emerged in 221 B.C. from China’s bloody civil wars between 400 B.C. and 200 B.C.
*Qin Shihuangdi established the dynasty.
*The Qin dynasty adopted Legalism.
*Political opponents of the regime (the government in power) were imprisoned or executed.
*Books that opposed the official views were burned. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) *The Qin made the central government stronger.
*The government was divided into three ministries: the civil, the military, and the censorate.
*Members of the censorate checked on government officials to make sure they were doing their jobs.
*Future Chinese dynasties adopted this practice and kept this structure. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) *Qin Shihuangdi unified the Chinese world by creating a monetary system and a road system.
*He extended the empire south to modern-day Vietnam.
*The harsh rule of the Qin dynasty angered many people.
*The dynasty fell in 206 B.C.
*The Qin emperor was concerned with the Xiongnu, a nomadic people who lived near the Gobi. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) *The Xiongnu had mastered warfare from horseback.
*They attacked the Chinese living in the north.
*To protect these people, Qin Shihuangdi built a system of walls called the Great Wall of China.
*The Great Wall standing today was built 1,500 years later. The Qin Dynasty (221–206 B.C.) SECTION 3 section 2 Section 2 The Shang Dynasty The Chinese passed on many legends about the beginnings of the world and about the origins of ancient China.
For example, an early Chinese story tells us of Pangu, the first man, who awoke from 18,000 years of sleep to create the universe.
Another Chinese legend describes the labors of Yu, a mythological figure who drained away floodwaters so people could live in China.
The Xia ruled over a late Neolithic people who lived in the Huang River region starting in about 2200 BC.
The people lived well in good times, but may have had little centralized control over irrigation and flood-prevention measures.
1750 BC and 1500 BC – invaders called the Shang swept into the Huang River valley. Legends of Ancient China Shang created China’s first historic dynasty. Later Chinese writers wrote an account in which Tang, a Shang leader, asks the Xia people to reject their king and to follow him. (cont..) Shang Kingdom stretched across 40,000 square miles. Shang moved their capital several times, probably for defensive reasons or to avoid floods.
Shang rulers created a complex bureaucracy- a government organized into different levels and tasks.
Their army used war chariots and bronze weapons to defend against the peoples on the the kingdoms borders. Their military might and well-organized government allowed the Shang to gain territory and to spread their culture. Government and Culture Shang Economy was based mainly on agriculture. Crops: millet and rice.
Domestic animals: pigs and chickens for meat and horses for labor. During Shang dynasty, the Chinese knew how to raise silkworms.
Not all Chinese of the Shang period were farmers. Many merchants and artisans lived in the capital and in the towns of the Shang realm.
Artisans: worked in bone, ivory, jade. Established the foundation for later Chinese ceramic art. Developed the forms and shapes used in Chinese ceremonial vases. Economy and Handicrafts Chinese use two calendars, one based on sun and the other on movements of the moon
The moon-based, calendar was probably was used to record private and public events
Each lunar month began with a new moon and was about 29 days long
The king’s popularity depended upon success of harvest, which in turn depended in part on the time of planting as determined y the calendar
Priest-astronomers played an important role Astronomy and
the calendar Religion that developed during the Shang period combined animism—belief that spirits inhabit everything—with ancestor worship.
People believed in an all-powerful and kindly dragon that lived in seas and rivers and could rise into clouds. This dragon became the symbol of Chinese rulers.
Chinese also worshiped gods of wind, sun, clouds, and moon.
In an autumn religious festival, people thanked the moon god for harvest
Shangdi, was a great god who controlled human destiny and forces of nature
Priest played an important role in Chinese religion
Tried to predict future events or interpret divine messages from spirits of ancestors
Wrote questions on oracle bones—shoulder bones of cattle or tortoise shells. Religion in the Shang Period Early Chinese—like Chinese today—spoke many dialects, or variations of their language.
They assigned special symbols, or characters, to words in their language.
At first these characters were pictographs, or drawing objects.
Later, as it became more complex, the Chinese developed ideographs.
Ideographs consisted of two parts—a signifier, or idea sign, and a phonetic sound sign.
For many centuries ability to read and write was limited to a small number of specialists
These people usually served the Shang rulers as clerks, scribes, and teachers.
Writing became an art called calligraphy. Language and Writing By about 1200 B.C. herders from the harsh Gobi Desert and the Tian Shan foothills had begun to edge toward the Huang valley.
These peoples were probably attracted to wealth and lifestyles of China Proper.
Over time, some seem to have begun to settle along the borders of Shang China.
During the 1100s B.C. the Shang almost continuously battled these warlike neighboring states.
The last Shang king, Di-xin, couldn’t protect the kingdom’s northwest borders.
In about 1050 B.C. people called the Zhou formed an alliance with nearby tribes and overthrew the dynasty.
Zhou justified their conquest by claiming that the Shang were corrupt and unfit to rule.
This explanation for the overthrow of one dynasty by another has been used throughout China’s long history Fall of the Shang Dynasty Chapter 4 Section 5 Women had fewer rights than men.
A typical family consisted of a father mother son and daughter (usually unmarried).
The father was the ruler of the family.
Mothers had little or no power unless they bear children then they become more important. Family Social Life The economy of ancient china consisted of villagers.
Even when china grew it still consisted of villagers who paid taxes and did road work.
The economy improved when the Silk Road linked china with the Mediterranean. Economy China had a set of texts which they trained servants to be respectful of tradition.
There is 5 of these texts. Arts and Sciences Book of rights deals with manners and ceremonies.
Book of history contains speeches and documents about the government.
Book of changes is about predicting the future.
The Spring and Autumn annuals book about the Lu city state from 722 B.C. to 488 B.C.
The Book of poems-proverbs and wise sayings. The Five Classics Education was only available to privileged people and astronomers.
Figured out that the year is a little longer than 365 days. Science and Technology Chapter4 Sec.1
Geographic and Cultural Influences China is a land of enormous size, great geographic variety, and widely contrasting climate patterns.
Rugged, snow- capped mountains range across the country’s west, northwest, and southwest. These towering mountains, including some of the world’s tallest and most forbidding, slope down to high, wind- swept desert or semi- desert plateaus.
Moving south the plateaus give way to rolling country of low hills and valleys. In the north the plateaus slope gently down to the North China Plain, a coastal area along the Yellow Sea The Physical Setting The mountain range that cuts from the west to east across China is called the Qinling Shandi. This range separates the valleys of two great rivers- the Huang and the Chang, or Yangtze. This mountain range also separates northern and southern China.
Northern China has more extreme weather then southern China. Northern China receives less rain and has a shorter growing season. Wheat is the principal crop in the north.
Central and southern China receive more rain, so their leading farm product is rice.
What we call China has consisted of many different goegraphic and political sections over time.
The heart of China is known as China Proper; it is the smaller but most historically significant section. China Proper stretches from the eastern seacoast inland.
China’s other political sections have at various times included Tibet, Xinjiang, Mongolia, Manchuria, and Southern Korea. These regions form a semicircle around China Proper.
At different times throughout their history, the Chinese conquered and ruled these regions. On other occasions, nomads from one or another of these outlying regions conquered and ruled China’s heartland. Different regions The Huang river.
The Huang river flows about 2,900 miles across China before emptying into an arm of the Yellow Sea.
The Huang river has a fertile yellow soil called loess. So much loess washes into the Huang River that it gives the river a yellow tint. That is why the Chinese named it the Huang river which means “Yellow River.”
The Huang river has been prone to devastating floods, which had the ancient Chinese nickname it “China’s Sorrow.”
Early Farmers built dikes, or walls, along the Huang to protect crops from floods.
The dikes ended up slowing the river’s flow and caused the deposit of silt on the river bottom.
Over years silt grew deeper, forcing river level higher. The river finally reached the tops of the dikes, so that even moderate rains caused the river to wash over the dikes and into surrounding fields.
The Chinese decided to make the dikes higher, but this ask did not end the flooding. Every few years the Huang broke the dikes, resulting in destroyed crops and great loss of lives.
Rainfall in this region was unpredictable, so floods alterned with periods of drought and famine. Rivers of China The Chang River
The Chang River, in central China, flows for 3,434 miles. The river cuts a deep channel through its valley.
In modern times, large ocean- going ships have been able to navigate nearly 600 miles upstream. Smaller ships can travel about 1,700 miles upriver.
The Xi River
The Xi River in Southern China is about 1,200 miles long.
Like the Chang River, Xi forms an important commercial water way. Large ships can navigate about one third of its length. Rivers of China Early China Great distances, rugged mountains, and harsh, deserts such as Gobi, isolated China from the civilizations of India and the west. As a result, China developed its own distinctive culture.
Along their northern and northwestern borders, the Chinese had regular contact with nomadic and semi – nomadic peoples. These peoples spoke their own languages and had their own cultures. Usually they traded peacefully with the Chinese.
Sometimes these peoples would organize bands of mounted warriors and attacked Chinese settlements. The Chinese considered these people culturally inferior and called them barbarians.
Infrequent contact with foreigners helped give the Chinese a strong sense of identity and superiority. They regarded China as the only civilized land, calling it Zhongguo, or “Middle Kingdom,” meaning center of the world.
The Chinese believed that other people became fully civilized only by learning the Chinese language and adopting Chinese customes. In many cases, even when outsiders overran parts of China, as sometimes happened, the invaders would lose their identity over time and be absorbed by China’s population. China’s Isolation SOURCES www.youtube.com
World History Book
www.google.com Han emperor The first Qin emperor, Cheng followed the ideas of Legalism.
Though, it was only for a short period, the Chinese philosophers claimed that Qin’s dynasty used cruel methods. Qin emperor, Cheng Legalism in practice Buddhism was a great influence in china, bought by missionaries from India.
Most of the followers turned into Buddhism after Han’s dynasty fell.
Buddhist temples and ceremonies offered a sense of peace and safety during turbulent times.
Buddhism emphasized universal charity and compassion, idea is that Chinese philosophy had largely overlooked.
The branch of Buddhism called Mahayana became popular in China, Japan, and Korea. Buddhism in China Cont. The teachings of Buddha, Confucius, Laozi and the Legalists had a lasting effect on Chinese attitudes.
Legalism centralized political ideas that strongly influence Chinese government.
Buddhism, Confucianism, and Daoism provided moral and ethical guides to right living.
Confucianism, won the most followers because it focuses on reverence for the past and emphasizes on family.
Daoist and Buddhist ideas were also absorbed because of the ideas regarding values such as:
And wisdom SECTION 4 Philosophies of Ancient China The root of many Chinese philosophies was the belief regarding dualism, or two-sidedness, of nature. This idea states that everything in the world comes from a balance of two forces. This force is know as Yin and Yang.
Yang is male, bright, and active.
Yin and Yang do not repel each other, rather they depend on each other and maintain a balance.
This concept led to the belief that balance in human affairs are normal.
Yin is female, dark, and passive. Philosophy of Yin and Yang The three concepts of the basis of Confucianism are: 1. Importance of Family
2. Respect for one's elders
3. Reverence for the past and one's ancestors.
Confucianism concentrated on encouraging strong, positive behavior for China's leaders.
Every person should accept his/her role in society and perform their duties concerning that role.
The government and its leaders should be virtuous; instead of seeking wealth and power, rulers should be honest and honorable to those they led. Confucianism Daoism took its name from its cental idea, the Dao, meaning "The Way".
The Dao is described as an indescribable force that governed the universe and nature. To understand the Dao, people:
1. Would have to withdraw from the world and live in harmony with nature
2. Shouldn't strive for material wealth
3. Not seek power
4. Follow a humble, quiet, and thoughtful lifestyle.
Daoism was the second most important philosophy in ancient Chinese life, behind Confucianism.
It appealed to peasants because of its concern with natural forces. It appealed to many artists
and poets because it valued the spontaneity and freedom of artistic expression. It also appealed to
most Confucianists because it encouraged a balance in life. Daoism had served as a balance, in a
way, with Confucianism. Like Yin and Yang, each had contributed what the other didn't. Daoism Yin and Yang- Various Philosophers
Legalism- Various Emperors of Qin and Han Dynasties
Buddhism- Missionaries from India (brought in during Han Dynasty) Leaders/Founders