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Modal Verbs form 2

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Oriana Said

on 29 August 2013

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Transcript of Modal Verbs form 2

Ability and Obligation
Modal Verbs
The following are the
modal verbs
of
ability
and
obligation:
Ought to
Must
May
Might
Could
Cannot
Possibility & Certainty
The Present and Future
Can - Could
Must
Should
To say someone has an obligation to do something we use the modal verbs as follows:

have to + infinitive

must + infinitive

should + infinitive
We
must avoid
unhealthy foods and do as much exercise as possible.
You
should
all
have
more physical education lessons.
-
The verbs (in the infinitive) go
AFTER
the modal verbs not before.
- The negatives are formed using the word
NOT
- When forming
questions
modal verbs go before the subject in a sentence (in the beginning of the sentence).
1. Modal verbs do not take "-s" in the third person.

Examples:

He can speak Chinese.
She should be here by 9:00.
2. You use "not" to make modal verbs negative, even in Simple Present and Simple Past.

Examples:

He should not be late.
They might not come to the party.
3. Many modal verbs cannot be used in the past tenses
or the future tenses.

Examples:

He will can go with us. Not Correct
She musted study very hard. Not Correct
Modal verbs behave differently from normal verbs.

Here are some important differences:
Can
Can (cannot)
and
be able to (not be able to)

are

used
to talk about ability.

Which tenses are used to show the future?
_______________/_________________

________
be able to
is used to talk about future ability,
for example, Samuel __________
be able to
go on holiday once he gets paid.

The Negative is formed by adding _______.
Can is used for:
1. General ability:
a. Present: I
can
speak Italian.
b. Past: I
could
speak Italian
c. Future: I
will be able to
speak Italian
Can: used for the present

for the past:
COULD
for the future:
BE ABLE TO
Can is also used when you are allowed to do something.
1. I
can
go to bed at ten o'clock on Saturdays.

2. Use
be allowed to
when talking about the past:

I
was allowed to
go to bed at ten o'clock on Saturday.

Use
will be allowed to
when talking about the future

I
will be allowed to
go to bed at ten o'clock on Saturday.
There are
NO past or future forms of must
. When we want to use must to refer to
past or
future times
we use
HAVE
.

Yesterday I had to do my homework. Today I must hand it in. Will I
have to do
my homework again tomorrow?
Must and have are used to talk about rules and laws as these are also obligations.
When the speaker is imposing something on someone we use 'must'. When someone is imposing someone on the speaker we usually use have to.

- You must all get your books tomorrow.
I am telling you
what you have to do.
- I have to come for the lesson tomorrow.
You are telling me
what I have to do.
When you want to talk about things which you are not allowed to do use mustn't or can't NOT don't have to.
You
cannot
steal and you
must not
shoplift

Doesn't have to or don't have
to is used for something which is not necessary.

You
don't have
to read a book every day but it would be ideal!
Should is used to say what is necessary (similar to must) but it is not as strong.
Must
Ought to is similar to should however it is much less common.
Need
In the beginning we said that with modal verbs the infinitive verb without to is used.

For example...

________________

________________

________________

________________
Need and Ought however, are USUALLY followed by the to- infinitive:

We need to do more sport.
We ought to do more sport.

When we want to talk about
ability (in the present)
we use _______. So to talk about
ability (referring in the past)
we use_________. We can also use
was/were able to
when talking about ONE event is the past.

- He
was able to get
into the garden.
- They
weren't able to open
the door, they didn't have the key.
Must has no past form. Use Had to instead. When you want to use the negative use couldn't or wasn't allowed.

- I
must
get a job.
- I
had to
get a job.

- I
mustn't
eat chocolate
- I
couldn't
eat chocolate!
You all
have to keep
the classroom clean
When we want to say that we are
not allowed to
do something we use MUST NOT (mustn't)or CANNOT (can't).

When we want to say that something is
not necessary
we use DO NOT HAVE TO (don't have to) or DOES NOT HAVE TO (doesn't have to).

For example:

We
must not / cannot
steel things from shops .

You
don't have to
buy everything you see!
Must OR Have?

I
must
have as much fun as possible!
I
have to
eat all my vegetables!

Which one do you tell yourself and which one is very often told to you?

So
:
'have to'
is often used when someone else OR the situation imposes/forces something on you.

For example:

I
must
call on my friend I need to call on him!
I
have to
do my homework otherwise I'll get report.
1. Must: has no past or future forms. So we use the different forms of 'have to' when we want to speak about obligation in the past or future.

For example:

I must go to work everyday. This is in the __________________ tense.

In the future we say: I _________________________________ to go to work everyday.

In the past we say: I __________________________________ go to work everyday.
These are Modal Verbs. A Modal Verb

DOES NOT CHANGE.
The infinitive without to is used after modal verbs.
For Example:

Must:__________________________________________________.
May: __________________________________________________.
Might: _________________________________________________.
Could: _________________________________________________.
Cannot: ________________________________________________.
The negative of must is cannot or can't.
May, Might, Could: These modal verbs are also used to talk about something which will happen in the future.

The negative for these modal verbs are may not and might not.
Possibility and Certainty in the
Past
This means that you are certain that something was so in the past.
This means that something might have happened in the past.
The Maltese temples
must have been
built by very strong people!
These people
might have been
women. Who knows!
must have + past participle
The negative form of must is _________________.

Therefore the negative form of must have is:

___________________ or ___________________.
May have or might have are the modal verbs used to say that
something in the past was possible.
There couldn't have been that many zombies in that level! Well I guess there might have been, after all it was level 15!
Requests, Permission, Offers, Suggestions.
Requests:
As if remembering to say please and thank you wasn't enough.... In order to be polite you should also use a modal verb!
To ask something and do it politely you should use: can / could / may.
Can / could / will / would are used to ask someone to do something.
Permission
For permission we use MAY.
Offers
We use I'll / We'll to offer to do something for someone.
Suggestions
Use could, might or shall we to suggest ideas for other people.
Advice
The modal verb should is used to give advice.
Full transcript