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Science Body Systems

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sonia saroya

on 23 May 2013

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Transcript of Science Body Systems

System Digestive
System FUNCTION The digestive system is one of the most important systems in your body; its function is to ensure that every cell in your body gets the nutrients they need to sustain life. It is the system in your body, which breaks down all the food that you consume and separates the waste from the nutrients. It involves many different organs that all play a crucial role in the breakdown of the food. TYPES OF DIGESTION There are two main types of digestion that occur throughout the whole system: chemical and mechanical digestion. Chemical digestion is when enzymes are used to breakdown the food into small particles. Bile is an example of chemical digestion, it is a chemical made in the liver and stored in the gall bladder, and then released into the small intestine, which is where it breaks down food. Gastric juice is another example of chemical digestion. It is composed of mucus, hydrochloric acid, water and enzymes. The last type of chemical digestion are salivary glands, they are glands located in the tissue surrounding your mouth that release saliva into your mouth when you are eating food. The saliva helps to moisten the food and break it down. Mechanical digestion is also a big part of the digestive system; it is used mainly in the stomach and mouth. In the mouth your teeth chew and grind the food, which makes it into smaller particles that are easier to digest. Your stomach does not only use gastric juices; it also churns the food, which just like chewing breaks it into even smaller particles. ORGANS Your mouth is the beginning of the whole digestive system it is where they food is first enters. Here it is broken down by saliva that is released; your teeth also chew it up. The next organ is your esophagus; it is a tube that extends from your throat to your stomach. With contractions in the muscles of your throat called Peristalsis, the food is transported down to your stomach. The stomach is an organ with muscular walls that breaks down food chemically and mechanically. Gastric juices mix with the food particles making them even smaller. The stomach also churns to help the gastric juices to mix with the food faster. Next is the small intestine, it is a very, very long coiled tube below your stomach that continues the breakdown process with bile released from the gall bladder and enzymes from the pancreas. The small intestine is where all of the nutrients are absorbed. This happens with villi, they are small finger-like projections that increase the surface area of the small intestine. On the villi are even smaller finger-like projections called micro villi; these increase the surface area even more. Last is the large intestine, by the time food reaches the large intestine mechanical and chemical digestion is complete. This is where the water is absorbed along with minerals and vitamins. Any food that has not been digested is formed into feces and sent to the rectum. PATHWAY DISEASES Chron’s disease is a disease that causes inflammation, swelling or irritation on any part of the digestive tract. The small intestine is the one that is usually affected. The swelling in the digestive tract can make the small intestine empty itself very frequently which usually results in diarrhea. The inflammation can produce a build up of scar tissue in the passageway of the small intestine, which can cause the food to slow down.
Ulcerative Colitis is a disease very similar to Chron’s disease. It is a disease that causes ulcers (large soars) on the inner lining of the large intestine. This disease is one of the two main forms of chronic inflammatory disease. The inflammation causes loss of lining in the large intestine, which leads to bleed, diarrhea and discomfort in the abdomen.
Gastropareisis is a disease that affects your stomach. It is a disorder that slows or stops the movement of food from your stomach to your small Intestine. Gastroparesis occurs when the vagus nerve, the nerve that controls the muscles that pushes your food from the stomach into your small intestine, is damaged by illness or injury. Food then moves slowly from your stomach to your small intestine or it stops moving all together. Circulatory
System FUNCTION The respiratory system is another extremely important system in the human body. It is the system responsible for your breathing and gas exchange. It supplies blood with oxygen so that the blood can transport it throughout the whole entire body. We inhale oxygen and when we exhale, it is carbon dioxide; this is what the respiratory system does. HOW IT WORKS When you take a breath and inhale, oxygen enters through the mouth and nose and goes into the windpipe. The air then goes into Bronchi, which connect to the lungs and then into Bronchioles. Once the air is inside the lungs it goes from the Bronchioles to little air sacs called alveoli. In the alveoli is where the oxygen is exchanged for the carbon dioxide. The oxygen is then transported by red blood cells all over the body where tissues use the fresh oxygen for energy. ORGANS The nose and the mouth are the two organs that air enters and leaves the body through. In your nose you have nose hair to filter out anything from entering your body. This is the starting point for the respiratory system. The epiglottis is a little flap of cartilage in your throat ensuring the air goes down the right pipe as well as food. It is composed of cartilage and is the gateway to your trachea. The trachea is also known as a windpipe and its main job is to facilitate the flow of air to the bronchi. It extends from the larynx to the bronchi. The bronchus is the passage, which allows the air to flow into the lungs. It extends from the trachea to the lungs. The lungs are a very important part of the human body. They supply the body with oxygen and remove carbon dioxide. This is where everything related to gas exchange happens. The alveoli are little air sacs; there are billions of them throughout your lungs. In the alveoli is where the gas exchange takes place. The capillaries full of carbon dioxide rich blood empty themselves by diffusion through the one cell thick walls of the alveoli. After that the oxygen from inside the alveoli diffuses out into the blood, making it rich and full of oxygen. Last is the diaphragm, it is a large dome shaped muscle at the base of your lungs. It makes the chest expand when you inhale and contract when you exhale. When the diaphragm contracts it causes the volume of the lungs to increase, when the lung volume increases, the air pressure drops causing air to come in from the outside. This is how inhaling works. When you exhale, the process is reversed. PATHWAY DISEASES Bronchial asthma is a condition when the bronchial airway narrows and it is extremely hard for you to take quick breaths. This can happen from allergies, emotion, pollution and infection. It may lead to coughing, wheezing and great difficulty in breathing.
Lung cancer is the uncontrollable growth of an abnormal cell in one or both lungs. This can happen from anywhere along the bronchus down to the alveoli. There is primary lung cancer which means the cancer started in the lungs. Secondary cancer means that the cancer started somewhere else and has found its way to the lungs.
Pneumonia is an infection in the lungs caused by bacteria, viruses, fungi or parasites. Inflammation is what happens to your alveoli when you have pneumonia. It can be a very serious issue and may even lead to death. FUNCTION The circulatory system has one main job and that is to transport things such as blood cells, nutrients, gases and wastes throughout the body. This body system is connected to the heart, lungs, and many more parts of the human body. The circulatory system is another extremely important system in your body. DISEASES Diabetes is a disease that happens when the glucose level in your blood rises and becomes extremely high. As a result, some blood vassals in certain parts of your body become damaged. The damages blood vassals affect the body’s ability to circulate blood effectively.
Coronary heart disease is a condition when plaque builds up inside your coronary arteries. These arteries are the ones that supply oxygen-rich blood to your heart. When plaque builds up overtime it can rupture or harden. Ruptured plaque can stop the flow of blood to the heart. If the plaque hardens, it can narrow the coronary arteries, which reduces the flow of blood. Both of these situations may result in a heart attack.High blood pressure may not be a disease, however it is a very serious condition that 1/3 adults face. It is when the force of blood pushing against the walls of your arteries as the heart pumps it, is too high. High blood pressure should be taken very seriously, if is not, it may result in coronary heart disease, heart failure, a stroke or kidney failure. ORGANS The heart is the main organ of the circulatory system, without it the blood could not be pumped within the body and purified. The hearts main job is to pump blood to all different organs, if the heart failed to do this then the organ would begin to deteriorate. The heart has four chambers: right atrium, left atrium, right ventricle, and left ventricle. Each chamber has its own job and responsibility. Without the heart we would not be able to survive. Your body has two lungs and they main job is to simply supply the heart with fresh oxygen. The air you intake while breathing goes to the lungs, the oxygen is then added to the blood and transported to the heart. Blood and blood vassals are not actually organs however they are a big part of the circulatory system. Arteries carry pure blood from the heart to different body parts while the veins carry impure blood from different body parts to the heart. Blood carries oxygen through the body and carbon dioxide out, nutrients around the body and helps to protect itself from disease. PATHWAY IMPORTANCE OF BLOOD Blood is one of the most important substances in the human body. Not only is it used for transporting nutrients, it also gets rid of waste like carbon dioxide, as well as fighting infections, regulating the temperature of the body and carrying hormones. There are four different components that make up blood: red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, and plasma. Each has a very vital role that our body could not function without. Red blood cells are used to exchange oxygen and carbon dioxide. While white blood cells are used to fight infections and bacteria. Plasma is the only fluid in blood and makes up around 55% of it. The main job of platelets is to heal cut and make a plug (scab) to prevent blood loss. BODY SYSTEMS
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