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The American Revolution A-Z
Transcript of The American Revolution A-Z
December 16, 1773 is a night that will be forever remembered in American History- the night of the Boston Tea Party. On this night, colonists protested Britain's unfair taxes on tea by dumping 340 chests of it into Boston Harbor, disguising themselves as Indians as they expelled it from the three cargo ships. The Tea Party was an important piece in the battle for colonial independence, and it fueled colonists' resentment towards Great Britain after the country's introduction of the Coercive Acts that were meant to punish Massachusetts.
T is for Tea Party (Boston)
The United States of America was born on July 4, 1776, when the Declaration of Independence was approved by the Continental Congress. This bold move by the colonists launched the full-scale fight for independence from Britain, and it was the beginning of today's modern democratic country that we live in today.
U is for United States of America
Valley Forge, an area about 20 miles north of the formerly British-occupied Philadelphia, is a name associated with the Revolution that brings suffering, pain, and bravery to mind, although no battles ever occurred. Here, General George Washington and 12,000 Patriot men spent the winter of 1777-1778, where they lacked shelter, food, clothing, and other protection against the bitter winter. Over 2,000 men died here from malnutrition and disease, but the survivors truly soldiered on, facing the great cold and continuing to train in order to become better soldiers.
V is for Valley Forge
George Washington was a Virginian who was born in 1732. He went on to lead the Continental Army to victory during the American Revolution. Although he was a wealthy farmer, Washington's life was mostly spent in the military or in politics. After successfully commanding the Patriot Army, he was unanimously elected to be our nation's first president in 1789.
W is for Washington, George
British Parliament taxed colonists by enforcing laws such as the Stamp Act and the Tea Act, which placed duties on everyday goods. Since the colonies were not represented in Parliament, the colonists were being taxed unfairly without their consent. These unfair taxes sparked protests across Colonial America, and the injustice was summed up in the slogan "No Taxation without Representation".
X is for "No TaXation Without Representation
Yorktown, Virginia was the site of the last major battle of the American Revolution. Beginning in August of 1781, General George Washington and his 2500 troops, combined with French General Comte de Rochambeau's 4000 troops, marched to Yorktown where General Cornwallis and his British army was stationed, surrounding them from all sides. The fighting that took place steadily wore down the Redcoats until their surrender on October 19, 1781, the day when Washington and his troops achieved their greatest victory.
Y is for Yorktown
In 1733, John Peter Zenger was put on trial in the colonies due to an unflattering article he printed in a newspaper about the governor of New York. His lawyer, Andrew Hamilton, argued that Zenger had the right to print what he wanted as long as it was true. The jury decided that colonists had the right to voice their opinions freely and found him not guilty. Zenger's actions were one of the earliest examples of freedom of speech, a key idea in the formation of the United States.
Z is for Zenger, John Peter
John Hancock was an American Revolutionary and the president of the second Continental Congress. He had the largest signature on the Declaration of Independence.
H is for John Hancock
Independence Hall, located in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is where the Declaration of Independence was amended. Its assembly room, where the document was presented, was smaller than John Trumbull's famous 1817 painting suggested it was.
I is for Independence Hall
John Paul Jones was a naval hero for the Patriots, and he was once considered an outlaw. His most famous victory was on September 23, 1779, when he took over one of Great Britain's ships.
J is for John Paul Jones
King George III was the King of England at the time of the American Revolution. King George refused to accept the Declaration of Rights from the Patriots in 1774, and he used Redcoats, or British soldiers, to fight against the colonists in the Revolution.
K is for King George III
Loyalists were colonists who sided with Great Britain during the Revolutionary War. Over 20-30% of colonists were Loyalists, and New York City was home to the largest amount of them.
L is for Loyalists
Minutemen were the local militia for the Patriots. They got their nickname from their ability to fight at a moment's notice. They fought with Paul Revere at the Battle of Lexington, one of the first major Revolutionary War battles.
M is for Minutemen
This was a famous uphill battle in Boston that was launched from Breed's Hill. Although the Redcoats won, the Patriots proved they could take on the Redcoats, and they showed that they had a chance at beating the Redcoats in the future.
B is for Bunker Hill
This pamphlet was published anonymously by Thomas Paine in January 1776. It was a 47-page pamphlet that argued for colonial independence, and it moved many colonists to Patriotism.
C is for
The Declaration of Independence announced the colonies' break from Britain. Written by Thomas Jefferson in 1776, the document argued for people's rights, including "life, liberty, and the pursuit of happiness." This launched the full scale rebellion against Britain.
D is for Declaration of Independence
This phrase means "Out of many, one" in Latin. It united America, and quickly became a symbol of Independence for the colonies. It was very important in the formation of the United States as we know it.
E is for "E Pluribus Unum"
George Rogers Clark voluntarily led the western campaign for Independence. He led forces that weakened British support systems in western settlements. His men also attacked targeted trading villages.
G is for George Rogers Clark
A is for African Americans in the Revolution.
Although the Revolution was a fight for freedom, enslaved people didn't have much freedom at all... However, they did everything and more, fighting in the war and helping to handle gunpowder and such for their masters. Without them, their masters would have had to do everything on their own. Even though some people opposed slavery, it was hard for slaves to actually gain freedom and for their rights to be recognized.
This was a gathering of colonial leaders in 1774 held in Carpenter's Hall in Philadelphia. Here, the leaders from the colonies had intense debates about keeping peace with Britain and avoiding war.
F is for First Continental Congress
N is for Native Americans
The Declaration of Independence did not address the rights of Native Americans to life, liberty, or property. American colonists had been settling on lands that belonged to them, but the colonists' disregard for the Natives began more intensely after the Revolution. The Iroquois Confederacy tried to remain neutral during the war, but most of its members eventually sided with the British after disputes with colonists over land. The Revolution stirred huge conflict within the Confederacy.
O is for Olive Branch Petition
John Dickinson drafted the Olive Branch Petition, which was adopted by the Second Continental Congress on July 5, 1775, and submitted to King George on July 8. It was an attempt to defend colonists' rights while maintaining loyalty to the British Crown. King George refused to read the petition, and on August 23 declared that the colonists had "preceded to open and avowed rebellion."
A patriot willingly loves and supports their native country. Patriots who fought for independence against the British in the war were Americans, loyal to a country that didn't officially exist yet! Revolutionary War ideas regarding the Patriots who made America happen include who the Patriots were, their sacrifices, and why their efforts made a difference.
P is for Patriots
As part of the Coercive Acts, a disciplinary program against Massachusetts following the Boston Tea Party enforced by British legislator Lord North, Parliament enforced the Quartering Acts. The Act, which was enforced in 1774, required colonists to house British soldiers. The Quartering Act, which was viewed as unjust, further increased resentment towards Britain by the colonists.
Q is for Quartering Acts
Samuel Adams was born in 1722, and he was the cousin of John Adams. His father wanted him to become a minister, but he preferred politics, arguing for American independence. He was an American Patriot, and he led the agitation that sparked the Boston Tea Party. He also signed the Declaration of Independence.
S is for Samuel Adams
Redcoats were the British soldiers who fought against the Patriots, or colonists, in the American Revolution. They are called Redcoats by the colonists because of their bright red uniforms.
R is for Redcoats