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American Home Front During WWI
Transcript of American Home Front During WWI
During the Great War Wartime Agencies War Industries Board (WIB): told manufacturers what to produce, allocated raw materials, ordered construction of new factories, and, at times, set pricing. Victory Gardens People would grow their own vegetables in gardens in their yards in cities as well as farmers in the country
People would rally around days of Reducing food consumption
Wheatless Mondays, Meatless Tuesdays, and Porkless Thursdays Food Administration National War Labor Board (NWLB) In charge of mediating labor disputes to not allow strikes for production.
How did the NWLB do it? Industry CEOs pressured to improve wages, 8 hour work days, and the right to organize and bargain collectively.
Labor leaders agreed to not disrupt war production. Woman in Industry Millions of woman joined the workforce while men went off to fight the war.
When the war ended, however, most women returned to life before work. Great Migration Many African Americans were denied entry into the actual fighting of the war.
Many went North to factories to help with producing war materials.
Between 300,000 and 500,000 African Americans moved from the South to the North in what became known as the Great Migration.
Mexican Americans also joined in the migration. Between 1917 and 1920 100,000 Mexican Americans moved North.
These moves greatly altered the political and social make ups of Northern cities like Detroit, Chicago, Cleveland and New York. Civil Liberty Disputes Espionage act of 1917: Illegal to aid enemy, give false reports, or interfere with the war effort
Schenck v. United States: Charles Schenck wrote pamphlets to draftees stating draft is worng and write protest letters.
Abrams v. United States: Jacob Abrams wrote pamphlets denouncing the war and sending troops to help Russia fight.
Supreme Court ruled, under Espionage Act of 1917, that Schenck and Abrams rights as citizens were not violated given the certain circumstances in which they decided to write their pamphlets. Volunteers and Conscripts In 1917, the army and the National Guard of the United States had 300,000 troops.
A Draft was necessary but President Wilson and Congress created what is known today as Selective Service.
Men between the ages of 21 and 30 had to register and were selected randomly by a lottery style drawing.
2 million men volunteered for war.
Of the 400,000 African Americans that were drafted only 42,000 saw action over seas.
1917: women became clerks to fill the void of the Navy needs as well as many women became nurses to fill the need for aiding the wounded.
20,000 nurses served with 10,000 serving overseas.