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WHAP 1450-1750

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Christine Mai

on 3 March 2013

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Transcript of WHAP 1450-1750

Imperialism (Supported Exploration) Protestant Reformation Martin Luther Scientific Revolution Less Religious Influence Triangular Trade 1450-1750 C.E. Europe Age of Exploration Vasco de Gama Prince Henry
the Navigator Christopher Columbus Portugal Spain Isabella and Ferdinand Treaty of
TORDESILLAS (Let's Split up America by some Longitudial [N to S] line that runs through Western Atlantic Ocean)
East=Portugal-> Brazil
West=Spain-> Rich in land Enlightment Renaissance Humanism Printing Press Started in France
Gave a perspective of the intellectual and philosophical thought
Questioned traditional authority (Monarchy and Church) Trade Silk Road Decline
Marine (water) Trade Increase
Joinstock Company
Mercantilism China Mandate of Heaven Trade Silk Road decline
Europe and China now trade
Southern trading ports in Canton for Europeans
but still controlled/watched trade carefully CHOOSE ISOLATION Zheng He; Chinese navigator
-Ming Dynasty
-junks (ships)
-basically showed off Chinese power
-seemed pointless so China closed in on itself (isolation); we're better than you attitude Ming Dynasy Manchu (Qing) Mongols Japan Tokugawa Shogunate strict gov't that ruled 1600s to 1868 Trade 1542- Portugese establish trade
Jesuits took control of Nagasaki (Port City) Warrior
Farmer
Artisan
Merchant Edo Pd Reversal attitudes towards Western Influences
-Christians persecuted Prohibited Japs from traveling abroad and prohibited most foreingers from visiting Japan
-worried Japan might be overrun by European influences) National Seclusion Policy (1635) = Religion Shinto & Buddhism Arts Haikus (Poetry) & Kabuki (Theater) Africa Kongo Europeans created close political and economic relationship with the king (win-win situation)
Kings converted to Roman Catholicism
King Alfonso I converted half of his subjects
Portugal's need for slaves undermined the authority of the kings
became MAJOR CENTER FOR SLAVE TRADE Atlantic Slave Trade Estalblished by powerful kingdoms by the Songhai and in the kindoms of Kongo and Angola Songhai Islamic state tied in with Muslim world
CONTROLLED SALT, GOLD, AND COPPER
(once controlle by Mali)
Built on conquests and military force.
Ruled by Sunni Ali (1464-1493) consolidated his empire in the valley of the Niger Valley with the power of the navy
established a central adminstration
finaced the city of Timbuktu as an Islamic Center
fell because of superior military force Angola South of Kongo, Portuguesse established a trading post here
Portuguesse attempted to control Angola, but Queen Nzinga resisted.
For 40 years, the Queen studied European military tactics and made alliance with Portgual's rival, Dutch
Despite efforts, could not unify rivals nor overcome superior weapons New World Spanish and Portuguese Overseas Expansion/Empire Missionaries spread of Christianity Slave Labor became super important to the Americas Exploration and Colonization Aztecs and Incas Conquered -Aztecs conquered by Cortez
-Incas conquered by Pizarro Environmental Changes -soil exhaustion
-deforestation
-introduction of new diseases
(Small Pox killed natives) Population
Decrease Lots of Silver Found HERE! stimulated global trade network
-money to trade with China
-financed Spain's powerful army and bureaucracy Encomienda System Grants of Indian laborers made to Spanish conquerors and settlers in Mesoamerica and South America; basis for earliest forms of coerced labor in Spanish colonies Russia serfdom just got out of Mongol rule (1480) converted to Orthodox Christianity Peter the Great (1682-1725)
westernized Russia
-St. Petersburg ("window to the west") capital of Orthodox Christianity=Moscow ["Third Rome"] (after Turks captured Constantinople) Ivan III
-refused to pay tribute and declared Russia free Ivan IV (the Terrible)
-took name czar
-held absolute power
-death led to Time of Troubles due to face that there was no strong heir to the throne Ivans recruited peasant-soldiers to tame land Cossacks T.O.T. ended when Michael Romanov was elected (1613) -> Romanov Dynasty Catherine the Great (1762-1796)
-more enlightened polices and westernization
-continued western expansion; gained ground in Poland and territory on the Black Sea Mughal Babur: established the Mughal Empire 1523-mid1700s Akbar -super important dude!!! -unified India
-policy of RELIGIOUS TOLERANCE (Hindus)
-elimanted jizya (nonbeliever tax)
-attmepted to eliminate sati (women/fire)
-GOLDEN AGE OF ART, ARCHITECTURE, and THOUGHT Muslim (majority) (1556-1605) Shah Jahan (Akbar's grandson)
built Taj Mahal After Akbar's Death:
-jizya reinforced AND Hindus persecuted -religious tolerance ended -arrival of Europeans -Portuguese and British fighting for control of
Indian Ocean trade routes
-Portugal= trade in Goa; also had Christian missionaries
-Britian=British East Indian Company in Bombay
-By 1691, Brisih dominated trade in region Ottoman ENDED Byzantine Empire in 1453
-conquered Constantinople -> Istanbul
-Hagia Sophia -> converted to mosque Suileman the Magnificient ruled by Sultan founded by Osman Bey did allow petition from people -built up army
-actively encouraged art
-GOLDEN AGE under his reign (1520-1566)
-expanded territory Siege of Vienna (1530) turning point of expansion
-failed to capture Vienna "Middle Man"; Europe started turning more towards the Indian Ocean Controlled Silk Road; Janissaries used extensive civil service and bureaucracy Most Turks were Sunni led to conflict with neighboring Safavids (Shia) wealth came from control of the Dardanelles and Black Sea slaves for labor Key Points ...you should try to remember -The world became truly global. (Age of Exploration)
-Maritime tarde dominated the world.
-Nomads became a thing of the past.
-Labor systems transformed. (slave labor)
-"Gunpowder Empires" came onto the playing field.
-Renaissance; Europe relearned a lot of stuff.
-Protestant Reformation; explored relationship with God
-Enlightment; explored roles of men and the government
-Asia; didn't like Europeans
-Africa; couldn't fight them off because they were too fragmented
-Americans; lost to disease and technology
-most societies were still patriarchal
-women still technically belonged to men
-mixed offspring (mestizo) produced during this time period
-new social structure based on race Safavid centralized state on military conquest Shia Islam led to many conflicts with Ottoman (Sunni)
-was part of an alliance with Europeans against Ottoman overthrown hired Qing to help with external fights never left
-China became ruled by foreigners... again (1368-1644) (1644-1912) flowed from Americas into China (caused serious inflation) Silver Population growth stimulated by intro. of crops from the New World Under Qing (Golden Age): -continued using Confucian civil service exam system (actually opened up to more common people)
-Two important guys: Kangxi (1661-1722) & Qianlong (1736-1795); emperors that supported arts and expanded empire
-expanded territory/vassal states of China including Vietnam, Taiwan, Tibet, and Nepal
-1724: Christianity was banned
-1757: trade completely restricted to just Canton due to diseases from Europeans NEOCONFUCIANISM Jesuits tried to convert but failed patriarchal only a few women were given freedom During the 16th century, the ruler, Ismail, forced conversion. Gunpowder Empires Benin trade economy
palace in walled city
skilled in bronze work funded of 1450-1750 lasted until WWII (ended when Nationalists took over) Before this time period... -All the empires were interacting
-Mongols conquered a lot of land, led to cultural diffusion
-trading to the max
-Crusades
-Tang and Song
-Middle Ages (Dark Ages)
-Bubonic Plague (1450-1750)
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