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Bio Geochemical Cycles

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Austin Tapp

on 24 October 2014

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Transcript of Bio Geochemical Cycles

Bio Geochemical Cycles
By Austin Tapp
Carbon
Nitrogen
Phrosphorus
Hydrologic Cycle
1. What 4 organic compounds is carbon found in?
Among the numerous types of organic compounds, four major categories are found in all living things: carbohydrates, lipids, protein, and nucleic acids. Carbohydrates. Almost all organisms use carbohydrates as sources of energy. In addition, some carbohydrates serve as structural materials.
2. Carbon Dioxide comprises approximately what percent of tropospheric gases?
The troposphere is the lowest layer of
The troposphere contains 75 percent of atmosphere's mass- on an average day the weight of the molecules in the air is 14.7 lb.The troposphere contains 99% of the water vapor in the atmosphere. They are greatest above the tropics, where they might be as high as 3% and decrease toward the polar regions
3. How is this relative amount(%) of CO2
so significant in contributing to the earth's "natural thermostat"?
This has pushed atmospheric CO2 toward the 400 ppm level, far beyond the interglacial maximum. The climate system is trying to respond to the new setting of the global temperature thermostat, and this response has been the rise in global surface temperature by about 0.2 °C per decade for the past three decades.
4. Identify the two processes which have the greatest influence on tropospheric concentrations of carbon dioxide on a monthly or yearly basis. Explain:
The Main Greenhouse Gases
The most important GHGs directly emitted by humans include CO2, CH4, nitrous oxide (N2O), and several others. The sources and recent trends of these gases.
Earth’s temperature is a balancing act
Earth’s temperature depends on the balance between energy entering and leaving the planet’s system . When incoming energy from the sun is absorbed by the Earth system, Earth warms. When the sun’s energy is reflected back into space, Earth avoids warming. When energy is released back into space, Earth cools
5. name the two largest sinks (storage areas) for carbon.
Terrestrial Ecosystem Marine Ecosystem

6. Discuss how oceans play a major role in regulating CO2 levels in the troposphere.
The oceans contain about 50 times more CO 2 than the atmosphere and 19 times more than the land biosphere. CO 2 moves between the atmosphere and the ocean by molecular diffusion when there is a difference between CO 2 gas pressure (pCO 2 ) between the atmosphere and oceans. For example, when the atmospheric pCO 2 is higher than the surface ocean, CO 2 diffuses across the air-sea boundary into the sea water.
The oceans are able to hold much more carbon than the atmosphere because most of the CO 2 that diffuses into the oceans reacts with the water to form carbonic acid and its dissociation products, bicarbonate and carbonate ions . The conversion of CO 2 gas into nongaseous forms such as carbonic acid and bicarbonate and carbonate ions effectively reduces the CO 2 gas pressure in the water, thereby allowing more diffusion from the atmosphere.
The oceans are mixed much more slowly than the atmosphere, so there are large horizontal and vertical changes in CO2 concentration.
7. describe the two major anthropogenic interventions in the carbon cycle.
1. Briefly describe the processes involving in the hydrologic cycle: evaporation, transpiration, condensation, precipitation, runuff, infiltration & percollation.
Evaporation
The hydrologic cycle begins with the evaporation of water from the surface of the ocean. As moist air is lifted, it cools and water vapor condenses to form clouds.
transpiration
Transpiration is the process by which moisture is carried through plants from roots to small pores on the underside of leaves, where it changes to vapor and is released to the atmosphere. Transpiration is essentially evaporation of water from plant leaves.
condensation
by which water vapor in the air is changed into liquid water. Condensation is crucial to the water cycle because it is responsible for the formation of clouds. These clouds may produce precipitation, which is the primary route for water to return to the Earth's surface within the water cycle. Condensation is the opposite of evaporation.
precipitation
The clouds floating overhead contain water vapor and cloud droplets, which are small drops of condensed water. These droplets are way too small to fall as precipitation, but they are large enough to form visible clouds. Water is continually evaporating and condensing in the sky.
Runoff
Runoff is the movement of landwater to the oceans, chiefly in the form of rivers, lakes, and streams. Runoff consists of precipitation that neither evaporates, transpires nor penetrates the surface to become groundwater. Even the smallest streams are connected to larger rivers that carry billions of gallons of water into oceans worldwide.
Excess runoff can lead to flooding, which occurs when there is too much precipitation. Two recent events in the United States have caused major flooding.
Infiltration
aquifers are porous enough to allow water to move freely through it, people can drill wells into the aquifer and use the water for their purposes. Water may travel long distances or remain in groundwater storage for long periods before returning to the surface or seeping into other water bodies, such as streams and the oceans.
Percollation
aquifers are porous enough to allow water to move freely through it, people can drill wells into the aquifer and use the water for their purposes. Water may travel long distances or remain in groundwater storage for long periods before returning to the surface or seeping into other water bodies, such as streams and the oceans.
2. Name the two driving forces behind the water cycle.
Sun and the force is driven by the earths surface.
3. Distinguish the following term:
A. Groundwater and aquifer
An aquifer is an underground layer of water-bearing permeable rock or unconsolidated materials (gravel, sand, or silt) from which groundwater can be extracted using a water well. The study of water flow in aquifers and the characterization of aquifers is called hydrogeology. Related terms include aquitard, which is a bed of low permeability along an aquifer, and aquiclude (or aquifuge), which is a solid, impermeable area underlying or overlying an aquifer. If the impermeable area overlies the aquifer pressure could cause it to become a confined aquifer.
B. Aquifer and water table
The water table and an aquifer are terms used when discussing groundwater. The major difference between the two terms is that the water table references a specific portion of groundwater and an aquifer is all the groundwater present in the area.
C. Groundwater and Water table
Groundwater flows underground until the water table intersects the land surface and the flowing water becomes surface water in the form of springs
4. Describe three significant anthropogenic (man-made) interventions in the hydrologic cycle:
A.
1. Which organic compound is phosphorus found in?
A compound formed of only phosphorus and oxygen is found to be 56.35 percent phosphorus.
2.
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