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Transcript of Mind Map
Theories Mind Map
He was born in Frankfurt, Germany in 1902 and in 1994 died at the age of 92. He came to the United States in 1933 and joined Harvard Medical School. Later he moved to Yale University.
He was referred to as a psychologist, but was really an epistemologist. This made him a major contributor to the knowledge base of educational psychology.
The fundamental issue is not of new versus old education nor of progressive against traditional but a question of what anything whatever must be to be worthy of the name education -John Dewy
The great sign of success for a teacher is to be able to say, "The children are working as if I did not exist." -Maria Montessori
What teachers should know
Erikson belived that holding babies and having warm contact with them is crucial during their feeding time
What can we as teachers do?
Trust vs. Mistrust-
Adults are there to meet physical needs and to guide and support them.
Responding right away
Support babies attachment
Engagement and stability for children.
She believed that the teacher has a responsibility to provide wonderful sights, textures, sounds and smells for children.
By: Jackie Clements
A teacher's job is to determine curriculum based on children's knowledge and abilities.
Teachers need to plan, observe, organize and document to provide educational experiences for children.
Engage children so that learning is fun and exciting.
Help students make sense of their surroundings and experiences of the world.
Teach students how to live in society and help shape them as an individual.
What should teacher's know about
Children learn from
Education should involve real-life material and experiences and should encourage experimentation as well as independent thinking.
As long as people are alive, they are learning!
Education should be:
Involve social world & community
What should teacher's know about
-John Dewy established the first progressive education school.
"We cannot overlook the factors of discipline and of character building involved.. but it is useless to bemoan the departure of the good old days of children's modesty, reverence, and implicit obedience, if we expect merely by bemoaning and by exhortation to bring them back." -Dewy
-He believed that we could not forget the past of education but we could not be afraid to walk into the future.
She believed the
includes not only the space, furnishings and materials that are being used but also the adults and the children who share their days with each other, as well as the outdoor environment and other places children learn.
Children learn best through
Montessori thought early childhood teachers should....
in the classroom
Montessori's theories about children have influenced the way all early childhood programs are structured today!
It is a serious teaching responsibility to become "the keeper and custodian of the environment"
Providing a caring environment and keeping it bright and orderly should be a teaching skill.
Teachers need to ask themselves what they are providing in the environment to "educate the senses."
Teachers need to prepare the environment, provide appropriate materials, and then sit back and allow the children time and space to experiment.
Teachers should give the children the responsibility to keep their community space clean and orderly.
Teachers need to provide blocks of time for work and play, allowing children to structure their own time.
By allowing children to choose what they will do or how they will do it gives teachers more time to observe and assist.
Montessori teachers are trained to teach little and observe much.
Maria was actually a Doctor. Her first job was to select patients in the insane asylums. During this time she noticed the children and how they responded to her. This was the beginning of Maria.
Her theories became famous fast! Within a five year span they were known throughout America!
Her theories have influenced the way all early childhood programs are set up today!
She was nominated for the Nobel Peace prize 3 times.
There is in every child at every stage a new miracle of vigorous unfolding, which constitutes a new hope and a new responsibility for all. Eric Erickson
His first book,
, is considered a classic
by educators, psychologists, and
Erikson's theory of
psychosocial development called,
Eight Ages of Man
, covers the
entire life span of a human being.
He gave us the term
Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt
Give children simple choices
Ex. Peanut butter sandwich vs. cheese sandwich
Do not give false choices
Clear limits that are set
Be open to other needs for independence and dependence
Initiative vs. Guilt
Encourage for them to be as independent as possible.
Focus on gains! Not mistakes along the way.
Have expectations align with each child's abilities
Curriculum is on real things and real doings.
During the Austonomy Vs shame stage teachers need to know to eliminate false choices for children.
During Initiative Versus Guilt we have to realize that children are trying to find a sense of purpose. At this state the children are always moving and ready to learn. Teachers should also know that if you hover over your students and correct every mistake it may make them feel incompetent.
Teachers should also know...
We as teachers should focus on putting real things in our curriculum. If we teach children how to use REAL tools in the classroom it will make them more confident then using plastic or 'safer' tools for projects.
What we see changes what we know. What we know changes what we see.
Jean Piaget was born in Switzerland in 1896. He published a scholarly paper at the age of 11. He received a doctorate in biology and had not planned on working with children.
He added over 60
books and hundreds of
articles to his accomplishments.
Piaget asked "how" children arrived at what they know, not what or when.
His work has
been a primary
programs in the US
since the 1970s.
What do teachers need to do?
Keep a safe and interesting enviornment
Babies need to be able to manipulate objects around them.
Cause-and-effect toys, mirrors, soft material books
Talk to them in delightful tones
This stimulates the brain for cognitive development
Try and keep babies on a set routine or schedule
Ask questions in order for children to think through the problem themselves, to get to the answers
Open-ended questions and activities
Large blocks of free-play time
Gives children the opportunity to absorb their work and new information
Get more time for one-on-one interactions for those that need it
Rich and meaningful enviornment
Real world experiences
Getting parents involved in their child's learning!
What teachers need to know
According to Piaget, learning is neither extrinsic or intrinsic. Children learn from their interactions with the environment.
Piaget also believed in children learning by doing things themselves. For example, if a child wants to learn how butterflies become butterflies you can read them a story of the process or you can let them catch a Caterpillar and watch the process themselves.
What teachers need to know continued
We need to know during the
stage, the children rely on their senses and physical activity to learn about their surroundings. Another thing to be aware of is how reassuring and supportive we need to be for the children and parents during the separation anxiety period. As care-providers it is our duty to be aware of the stage each child is in and to keep in contact with their parents to help soothe them.
More of what need to know..
During the Preoperational stage we need to know that children are egocentric. Children at stage think only about themselves and we have to realize they are not being selfish.
Learning and development are interrelated from the child's very first day of life
Vygotsky was born in Russia.
He graduated from the University of Moscow in 1917.
He then became a teacher of literature.
From being a teacher he had many questions as to why children would act or respond in the way they did. Thus, the beginning of Lev Vygostsky's great thinking.
Lev did not have long to share his insight with us, he died at the age of 38.
Two of Vygotskys most important concepts are The Zone or Proximal Development and Scaffolding. You will learn more about these terms later in the prezi. :)
What teachers should know about Vygotsky's theory...
He believed that observation was just as valid as test scores.
His work showed that social and cognitive development work together.
Personal and social cannot be separated
A child's world is shaped by their families, communities, socioeconomic status, education and culture.
So understanding and beliefs come from those variables.
Play = Learning
Constantly use language
Interaction contributes to children's construction of knowledge.
Learn from their peers
Zone of Proximal Development &
Distance between the most difficult task a child can do alone and the most difficult task a child can do with help.
If on the edge of learning a new concept, it could be beneficial for interaction with a peer or teacher.
Name the assistance a teacher or peer offers a child.
providing supporting information about a new concept.
What teachers can do
Teachers can ensure children have enough play time.
Offer appropriate props and toys.
share ideas that can enrich and extend their play.
Teachers need to be keen observers and use those to determine where a child is at in their learning process.
Teachers need to support children's learning and plan curriculum accordingly allowing to meet their competence.
Teachers need to allow for
talking, questioning, joking,
and interrupting, allowing
children to stretch and grow
Providing opportunities for children to help one another on projects of their choice.
Having teaching techniques that foster self-regulation skills by modeling appropriate behavior and giving hints or clues on how to regulate behavior.
Born in Scranton, Germany in 1943.
He went to preparatory school in Kingston, Germany and then continued his education at Harvard.
Had Erik Erikson as a professor at Harvard, one of the factors in which he got interested in psychology
Frames of Minds
(1983) was Gardner's first full length statement of his theories.
"Anything that is worth teaching can be presented in many different ways. These multiple ways can make use of our multiple intellegences" - Howard Gardner
"If a child can't learn the way we teach, maybe we should teach the way they learn."
Howard Gardner believed there were 7 primary forms of intelligence, they were:
Teachers should be able to present their lessons in a variety of ways using:
Each person has a different
intellectual composition and possess all
9 intelligences in varying amounts.
The intelligences are located in different areas of the brain and can work independently or together.
Howard's beliefes challenge education stystems and teachers to think outside of the box. With all of the ways we can learn and grow, we have to be able to teach in these ways also. We have to know who learns musically, or more hands on. if we go by Howards theories we learn in multiple ways and have to teach them this way.