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Single Camera Techniques

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Emma Butcher

on 4 July 2013

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Transcript of Single Camera Techniques

By Emma Butcher
Single Camera Techniques
What is a single camera technique?
a single camera technique is when a production such as documentaries, dramas and comedies use just one camera for filming; every shot and angle is used with the same camera.
Examples of single camera techniques
Examples of multi-camera techniques
Multi-Camera Techniques
a multi-camera technique is when there is a camera for every shot and angle that is needed in a certain scene, they are then switched to show the different perspectives that the people one the screen have.
-this is when there are a certain amount of episodes shown during a certain time of the year, even if the series has an end to it the storyline may continue on to a second series. An example of a programme that does this is Skins
- this is what a soap would come under because the story lines are continuous and it runs for the whole year not just a certain time in the year, Hollyoaks is an example of a soap that does this.
Single Drama
- these are productions that run for one time, this type of drama has a start, middle and ending they don't run through to another episode, Dirty War is an example of this which was about a terrorist attack on London.
- there are many different genres for the formats for example:
period drama
- Downton Abbey as it is set in post Edwardian Yorkshire Estate and shows the lives of high class family and their servants.
- Broadchurch it's a crime drama because it is about a detective trying to find out who killed the young boy in his hometown.
Soap opera
- Hollyoaks because as said above about the serials it is shown all year round and contains story lines that can relate to the audience but also seem realistic.
Narrative Structures
- this is when the narrative flows in chronological order, so there is a beginning, middle and an end an example of this is Hollyoaks as the story lines all follow the chronological order.
Non - linear
- this is when the narrative doesn't follow a chronological order, things that can be part of this are flashbacks and flash forwards, an example of this is Inception as it uses lots of flashbacks and dream sequences to make the film
Single strand
- this is when there is only one main narrative that is focused on
Multi- strand
- this is when there are several characters shown to create a narrative, but it is shown from different points of view an example of this would be Broadchurch because all of the main characters living in the village have different parts to play in making up the narrative.
- this is when something in the past is shown because it is important to the storyline, it is also helps the audience understand the storyline more as well.
- this is when dramas use either true stories or narratives that are believable to the audience an example of this would be Eastenders as they base their narratives on real life situations or things that the audience can relate to
- this is when the audience can obviously tell that what is happening isn't real as a lot of CGI is used to create the product
Open endings
- this is when the drama finishes and leaves the audience guessing what will happen next so that the drama can come back for another series
Closed endings
- this is when the drama finishes and uses Torodov's narrative theory of an equilibrium to show the full story.
Narrative Theory
He was a structural linguistic who came up with the theory which defined narratives and stories, he believed that all stories follow the same narrative pattern. There were five stages that narratives can go through:
1. Equilibrium - everything is as it should be
2. Disequilibrium - something bad happens
3. There is recognition that something bad has happened
4. Someone/something repairs the damage that the bad thing has made
5. A new equilibrium is made

An example of this is the film 'Hot Fuzz'
At the start of the film Sargent Angel is happy with his work life in the police force in London but gets moved to Sanford an old country village to be a Sargent there.

A disruption happens when the people of the old, quiet village aren't all that they seem such as underage boys are drinking in the pub and the pub owners aren't bothered by it.

A recognition that the disruption has happened is that Sargent Angel starts to see for himself that people aren't all that they seem in the village but also murders are now happening in the village

The attempt to repair the damage of the disruption is that Angel does all he can to try and find out who the person is that is responsible for murdering people in the village

The film ends with the people responsible for the murders being arrested and so a new equilibrium is made
He was known for his 8 character role theory, he looked at a lot of folk tales and saw that there were a familiar set of characters in them. He believed that narrative structure was determined by character roles, the 8 roles he found were:
1. Villains
2. Heroes
3. Donors - a person that helps the hero
4. Helper - a person that aids the hero
5. Princess (reward for the hero)
6. Father Figure
7. Dispatcher - someone who sends the hero on their way
8. False Hero
Levi Strauss
He looked at how stories reflect values, beliefs and myths of a culture. They are normally shown as binary oppositions, his research has revealed underlying themes in stories.

Examples of the binary oppositions can be:
Good vs. Evil
Rich vs. Poor
Life vs. Death
Uses and Gratifications
This theory says that are 5 main reasons why audience consume the media:
1.To learn or be educated about the world
2. They can identify themselves with the characters
3. Social interactions with other people
4. To be entertained
5. To escape from their daily lives
Sound Editing
Sound scape
- this refers to the whole sound of the environment of the scene
- this is the sound of the characters in the reality of the drama that the audience can hear
- this is sound that's been imported such as a voiced over
On screen
- this is the sound that you can see on the screen
Off screen
- this is the sound that you can hear coming from outside of the shot
Parallel sound
- this is what logically links you to the visual you see on the screen
Contrapuntal sound
- this is sound that indicates something sinister is going to happen it works against the visuals examples of this would be in horror films
- no sound in the scene
- this is when there is an exaggeration of a certain sound such as a tap dripping
- this is when the sound is clearly linked to the visuals
- this is when there isn't a clear link between what is being shown to what is being heard
- this is when a certain mood is created with music
- this is when the voice has to match what you are showing
Rhythm/link to edit and pace
- this goes along with visuals, everything has to match each other
- there can be rich sounds, shallow sounds but it focuses on the certain character
- this is the natural sounds in the environment around you such as birds in the woods
- this is busy place sounds such as a city or town center
Sound bridge
- this links to or more scenes together such as soundtracks
Editing is the process of selecting and putting together a number of shots to create a meaning and relationship between the shots
There are different forms of editing such as:
cutting, dissolving, fading, wiping and cutting
which is the most important.

4 Dimensions of Editing
. Graphic relations between shots
- continuity. It lets film makers achieve the continuity, the shots are linked together by graphic similarities such as colours, shape, movement and overall composition
Rhythmic relations

between shots
- pace. The editor can change the length of shots they create dynamic pace, which shows the changing of pace
Spatial relations between shots
- the space that's used. This helps determine film space and time used and minimise the audiences awareness of the texts construction, in a normal continuity editing the audience is normally orientated in the film space by an establishing shot, medium shot and a close up.
Temporal relations between shots
- time used. this lets the film maker edit with the reference of the order of the events, duration of events and the frequency of events.
Order of events
- most TV dramas progress which is showing a linear narrative flashbacks and flash forwards can also be used
Duration of events
- elliptical editing shows ways of the film makers being able to change the duration of the story events as they can cut moments of time an example of this is the directors cut
Frequency of events
- a film makers chooses to 'replay' an event several times rather than just once, it would be rare to have this in a TV drama other than CSI as it is showing the murder happening, it can also show an event from a lot of different people's perceptive's.
My Name Is Earl
- Comedy
- it's the life through the perspective of Earl's eyes and how he copes with the problems that are brought up, he won $100,000 in the lottery and nearly lost it all by being hit by a car, after this accident he goes to put right all of the wrong things that he has done in his life so that he can get good karma
- the audience for the programme is 16+ to young adults as it's a comedy that older viewers may not understand
- in this drama they use point of view shots as it's from Earl's perspective of his life
Mise en scene
- the costumes, hair and make up used are to make the characters look like they belong from the location they are from, there is sometimes natural light when there are scenes outside but mostly man made lighting because of being inside rooms
- when the characters are having a conversation with each other this is diegetic sound

The Office
- Comedy/Drama
- it's set in the company Wernham Hogg in the Slough trading estate in England, most of the episodes involve the character David Brent trying to win the favour of his employees and peers which normally don't end well for him.
- 25+ as this audience can relate with the office job role but also find the jokes and comedy in the programme funny
- the director has used a cinematic single camera stye they use freehand camera work which gives the effect that we are in the room with the actors this is also shown by the shaking and moving of the camera.

- The lighting used in the scenes is from office lights and some light through the blinds to give the office lightng effect
- the sound when the characters are talking to each other is diegetic sound
Addams Family
- Comedy/Fantasy
- the characters step out of Charles Addams cartoons, they are all wealthy as a family and live with the trappings of macabre, there is also an accountant who is up to no good with a loan shark and want to pass the loan shark's son into the family as their long lost uncle Fester.
- young children to adults as it's a PG 13 film although children under the age of 13 should have parental guidance
- when the characters are talking to each other the sound is diegetic
- points of view shots have been used for each of the character's so that the audience can relate or be the people in the programme
- artificial light is used in this as the scene s that are inside the house need to be made bright enough for certain scenes so that the audience can see what is going on

In Hollyoaks you can see this being used with the story lines of most of the characters as they all have something they are up against such as Dr Browning's guilty mind vs. the truth, because he has murdered someone but keeps having flashbacks to it and doesn't know whether to say anything to anyone or not.
You can find these characters in Hollyoaks because on the story lines you will always have a string of people involved that make up the character role theories.
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