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MDMA

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Joey McInerney

on 11 December 2014

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Transcript of MDMA

What is MDMA
3,4-MethyleneDioxy-N-MethylAmphetamine
Both a stimulant and a pshchedelic
How it is made/forms
MDMA is being marked to young, first time drug users, between the ages of 12 and 17. Also known as "ravers"
What it does to brain
MDMA causes an increase in activity of three neurotransmitters: Dopamine, Serotonin, and Norepinephrine
Large amounts of serotonin are released from your serotonin neurons; this is Unlike some other amphetamines who release more dopamine than serotonin
The large amounts of serotonin are what account for most of the affects of MDMA
After using, the brain becomes depleted of serotonin
Affects of using
MDMA toxicity has been associated with seizures, hyperthermia, arrhythmias, heart failure, stroke, renal failure, and liver failure
Intracerebral hemorrage could also be cause by MDMA but is more unlikely, increased risk goes toward elderly and those with history of hypertension
Hepatitis and liver failure have been reported, although whether MDMA has a direct toxic effect to the liver is unclear yet.
Repercussions (law)
Why is it illegal?

MDMA

Presented
by:

Sources:
Carley Alex
Jessica Alex
Lindsey Wolaver
Meagan Ross
Joseph McInerney
HN
CH₃
CH₃
When it became illegal?
What happends when caught
using,selling or in possesion?
MDMA became illegal in 1985. DEA declared it a Schedule I drug. While in trial the DEA had little scientific truth that it was harmful but emphasized any potential for abuse to be labeled as Schedule I.
Because the DEA put MDMA as a Schedule I it was now classified as having a high abuse potential and not allowed to be tested even under medical supervision.
This makes it hard for Doctors,Scientists, and Psychologists to test MDMA at all for any therapuetic benifits, sideeffects or long term effects that it may have
The DEA collected info on it, because they couldn’t prove how high or low its potential for abuse was so they labeled it Schedule I to be safe.
Stayed illegal and on Schedule I because from 1997-2000 two people died with it in their system.
Also because they proved that it can cause brain damage.
Punishments for taking and selling MDMA change periodically to match public use and depends on the location you could be caught in.
Under the Influence of MDMA
California’s Health and Safety Code Section 11550 makes it a misdemeanor to be “under the influence” of a controlled substance like MDMA.
In Possesion of MDMA
Getting caught in US with a small amount for personal use carries a penalty of at most a year in jail and a fine. Anyone who has been caught with ecstasy before and is found with a small amount will face a minimum of 15 days and a maximum of two years in jail.
In California, a person caught with ecstasy who has no prior convictions may be able to plead down to a diversion program. Finish the program and it will erase the charge from a person’s record.
Other states offer much more serious punishments.
“Possession for Sale” of Ecstasy is what is called a “Non Alternative” Felony under Health and Safety 11378(a). This type of felony makes you ineligible for any kind of “diversion” program. It also means you now face a mandatory felony and potential jail time.
The government has a system in which they compare the amount of drugs to marajuanna to detemine the punishment.
One gram of ecstasy, which is about three pills, used to equal 35 grams of marijuana.
Now that ecstasy use is increasing more quickly than that of any drug in the US. One gram of ecstasy is considered equal to 500 grams of marijuana.
Being caught with 200 grams of ecstasy means a minimum of six years in jail.
Carley's sources
http://www.psychedelic-library.org/rosenbaum.htm
http://showbams.com/2013/11/06/law-mdma-molly-legal-tips-ravers-who-choose-use-ecstasy/
http://www.ecstasyabuse.com/blog/addiction/legal-consequences-of-ecstasy-use/
Meagan's Sources:
http://www.dancesafe.org/drug-information/mdma-contraindications/
http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/821572-treatment
Joey's Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/mdma-ecstasy-abuse/what-mdma
http://www.dancesafe.org/drug-information/ecstasy-slideshow/
Serotonin
People's mood are greatly influenced by the amount of serotonin is present in the brain
When the serotonin is released, is travels through the axon, into the vessicle, and then into the synaptic gap.
When enough serotonin are present on the receptor sites, it reaches its action potential causing the axon to fire.
Since there is an increased amount of serotonin in the synapse, this will increase the likelyhood for the axon to fire.
A main theory behind how MDMA increases serotonin levels is that it causes the re-uptake transporters to work backwards (filling up the synapse with serotonin instead of removing it)
Jessica's Sources:
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-ecstasy/section-iii/4-ecstasy-causes-degeneration-serotonin-nerve-terminals
http://www.ssdec.nt.ca/dj/ecstasy%202.pdf
http://thedea.org/otherissues.html
http://thedea.org/letsroll.html

Hightens all senses: strong stimulate effects, enhances appreciation for music, which is why it is commonly found at raves because of the dancing and music environment, and also enhances vision, touch, and taste. Your brain enjoys sensations much more
Relaxation: produces relaxation, energy, and a sense of peace and joy
Fear: Suppresses emotional fears and promotes socialization
Pain relief: serotonin is involved in pain control, people with terrible chronic pain has reported complete temporary relief while using MDMA
Overly focused: they are living in the moment, and as a result are very easily distracted
Too happy: almost incapable of aggression and hostility
Physical effects: pupil dilation and jaw clenching(often times biting the inside of mouth, causing sores) MDMA users avoid jaw clenching by having a sucker or a binki
Body effects: loss of appetite, dehydration, increase in heart rate and blood pressure, change in body temperature regulations (often unknowingly causing hypothermia)
During use of MDMA

Degenerates nerve branches and nerve endings: Nerve cell damage in the brain and spinal cord caused by loss of serotonin and serotonin metabolites in the cerebrospinal fluids
Depression and anxiety: Damage to neurons in the brain that transmits serotonin, which is an important biochemical involved in many critical functions like; sleep, learning, and integration of emotions, leading to depression and anxiety
Kidney failure: Indirectly or directly kidney damage and failure from dangerous increases in body temperature and strain on the kidney from muscle breakdown.
Acne: facial rashes or pimples may be an after affect of impaired liver function caused by MDMA hepatoxicity
Unbalanced: some people experience balance issues or dizziness for up to 4 weeks after use, this is associated with dangerously high doses or overly frequent use.
Vision: your vision may become fuzzy and you are less able to focus mentally on tasks for up to 7 days after
After effects of MDMA
Long term effects
Different forms:
Molly is short for molecules considered to be pure MDMA, unlike ecstacy, which is generally laced with other substances. Other known names for MDMA would be molly, X, Ex, and or ecstasy.
How is it made:
MDMA is synthetic, but essential oils from he roots of trees in Asia are required to make it which are Safrole or Camphor. There are many different ways to make it but the fastest way is with a chemical called "MDP2P", which is made in 12 hours
People who use it:
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