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EV Motors and Batteries

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Mike Radenbaugh

on 13 February 2013

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Transcript of EV Motors and Batteries

SPACE X Lithium Batteries Batteries Able to supply high surge currents but with large voltage sag.

Thicker plates that can deliver less peak current, but can withstand frequent discharging(Deep cycle).

Low energy-to-weight ratio and energy-to-volume ratio. Tor Founded in 2002
First privately-funded company to successfully make it to orbit and recover the spaceship
Recived Contracts from NASA.
Low Cost/High Reliability. Questions? "A Ferrari is a very expensive car. It is not reliable. But I would bet you 1,000–to–1 that if you bought a Honda Civic that that sucker will not break down in the first year of operation. You can have a cheap car that's reliable, and the same applies to rockets."

-Elon Musk Ni-MH Batteries Electric Motors & Batteries TTP 210 Guest Lecture Mike Radenbaugh 1) Electric Motors
Brushed DC
Brushless DC
AC 2)Batteries
Alternatives Brushed DC Motor 3 Phase Brushless DC Motor Stator Rotor Torque available at
low RPM, eliminates the
need for gears in almost
all conditions

Resistance Losses

Iron Losses

Stray Losses

Mechanical losses Switch two of the phases and the motor runs in reverse brush assembly is replaced by external electronic
switch synchronized to the rotor's position brushes press against the commutator

friction losses Require an absolute position sensor Induction drives will likely maintain dominance for the high-performance pure electrics. AC Induction drives will likely maintain
dominance for the high-performance
pure electrics 3 Phase AC Induction Motor Permanent magnets are expensive @~50/kg Complex induction characteristics Has an advantage over a DC brushless machine magnetic and conduction losses can be controlled such that efficiency is optimized. This advantage becomes increasingly important as performance is increased. With induction, as machine size grows, losses do not As motor size grows,
the magnetic losses
increase proportionately
and part load efficiency
drops. No permanent magnets brings cost down DC brushless drives will likely continue to dominate in the hybrid and coming plug-in hybrid markets Lead-Acid
Lithium Lead Nickel Metal Hydride Lithium Lead–acid Battery Prismatic Cylindrical 0-60 time of around 18 seconds
Range of 80 to 120 miles
27 kWh Ni-MH battery Variation of the Ni-Cd construction where the cadmium of the negative electrode is replaced by a complex rare earth alloy.

Sensitive to changes in temperature

Significant self discharge

Memory effect from large crystals forming within electrolyte from shallow discharges

~1000 Cycles

Chevron owns patent on large format cells relatively untested with regards to its long-term reliability, and can be subject to dangerous overheating and fire if cells are controlled incorrectly or damaged

Leading energy density. Energy density of lithium batteries has more than doubled since they were introduced in 1991. Key Points Auto industry created the US Auto Battery Consortium to stifle the Ni-Mh battery.

Lower Cost than lithium

Proven long life

Cobasys (Chevron) is squelching all access to large NiMH batteries through patent

GM, Firestone Tire, Standard Oil of California, Phillips Petroleum, Mack Trucks, and the Federal Engineering Corporation purchased an then dismantled
Electric streetcars throughout U.S. lithium ions move from the negative
electrode to the positive electrode
during discharge, and back when
charging. Small cylindrical (solid body without terminals, such as those used in laptop batteries)

Pouch (soft, flat body, such as those used in cell phones)

Prismatic (semi-hard plastic case with large threaded terminals, often used in vehicles' traction packs) There is a positive electrode, negative electrode, an electrolyte and a separator.
The electrolyte is a chemical solution, often potassium hydroxide, which allows for ion transfer between the positive and negative electrode.
The separator is used to physically separate the positive and negative electrodes, but to allow ion transfers. Inside the battery, chemical reactions produce electrons on one terminal and absorb electrons on the other terminal. Hub Motors Unsprung weight
Elimination of transmission
Low rpm As a function of size
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