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Introduction to perming

PERMING HAIR - Chemical processes
by

Carol Opie

on 20 April 2015

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Transcript of Introduction to perming

Perming hair
Health and Safety
What do you need
to consider?
consultation
Research product selection
and why?
STRUCTURE OF THE HAIR
PERMANENT WAVING
HAS 3 STAGES:

Consider Health and Safety issues

Points to consider during consultation

Identify tests prior to perming service

Explore product choice and why?
Identify the action of perm lotion and neutraliser on the structure of the hair

Understanding chemicals
LEARNING OUTCOMES
Identify points to consider before perming the hair?
ACID PERMS
ALKALINE PERMS
EXOTHERMIC PERMS
PRE PERM LOTION
POST PERM TREATMENT
The hair shaft
Polypeptide chains
The structure of keratin
SOFTENING
MOULDING
FIXING
When perm lotion is put onto the hair, it opens the cuticle layer and makes the hair swell slightly.

Heat is used with some perm lotions to assist this part of the process.

It is important to read the manufacturer’s instructions each and every time you carry out a perm.
Softening
Perm lotion opens and swells the cuticle scales
The softening stage
Once the cuticle scales have opened, the perm lotion goes through into the cortex.

Hydrogen from the perm lotion links up with the disulphide bonds, breaking them apart.
(Note: not all the disulphide bonds are broken.)

The softened hair is now malleable and able to take on the shape of the perm rod.
Moulding
The moulding stage
Once the required curl is achieved, the hydrogen is removed by the neutralising process.

The neutraliser releases oxygen which links up with the hydrogen from the perm lotion.

Hydrogen and oxygen = H2O (water).


This is rinsed away and the sulphur bonds link up with a new partner (disulphide bonds) in a new, fixed shape.
Fixing
The fixing stage
Perm lotion contains 2 chemicals:
1.
AMMONIUM HYDROXIDE
Opens cuticle – hair swells and allows the
product to penetrate into the cortex

2.
THIOGLYCOLLIC ACID
Breaks down the disulphide bonds to
allow hair to re-form into a new shape
1 + 2 = AMMONIUM THIOGLYCOLLATE
UNDERSTANDING CHEMICALS
NEUTRALISERS:
HYDROGEN PEROXIDE
An oxidising agent mainly used in alkaline
Perms

SODIUM BROMATE
An oxidising agent mainly used in acid perms
as it is less irritating to the skin
UNDERSTANDING CHEMICALS
REVIEW CARDS
WHAT HAVE YOU LEARNT TODAY
Full transcript