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Unit Three - Properties of Matter

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Jerry Allison

on 11 September 2017

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Transcript of Unit Three - Properties of Matter

Group contains: one nonmetal, two metalloids, and three metals
Electrons in the outer level: 4
Reactivity:
varies among the elements
Other shared properties: solids at room temperature
Unit Three - Properties of Matter
States of Matter
Density
The Periodic Table
Introduction to The Atom
Development of the Atomic Theory
STATE PERFORMANCE OBJECTIVE
: Recognize that all matter consists of atoms. (0807.9.1)

OBJECTIVES
:
I can describe some of the experiments that led to the current atomic theory.
I can compare the different models of the atom.
I can explain how the atomic theory has changed as scientists have discovered new information about the atom.

BELLRINGER
: Write this quote on your bellringer sheet and discuss what you think it means.

"Color exists by convention, sweet by convention, bitter by convention; in reality nothing exists but atoms and the void."
Have you ever watched a mystery movie and thought you knew who the criminal was? Have you ever changed your mind because of a new fact or clue?
Discuss with your table partner. What do you think is going on?
The Beginning of the Atomic Theory
Around 440 BC, a Greek philosopher named
Democritus
thought if you continued to cut paper in half, you would eventually end up with a particle that could not be cut.

He called this particle an atom which means "not able to be
divided
."

An
atom
is the smallest particle into which an
element
can be divided and still be the
same
substance.
MinuteLab
3 Minutes
In your supply box you will find a small piece of paper and scissors.
You and your table partner should take turns cutting the piece of paper in half.
See how many times you can cut the paper in half before you can no longer cut it.
Discuss how you might be able to cut your paper even further.
Dalton's Atomic Theory Based on Experiments (1803)
All
substances
are made of atoms. Atoms are small particles that cannot be
created
,
divided
, or
destroyed
.
Atoms of the same element are
exactly
alike, and atoms of
different
elements are different.
Atoms
join
with other atoms to make new
substances
.
Not Quite Right
Thomson's Discovery of Electrons (1897)
J. J. Thomson
showed that there are small particles
inside
the atom.

Atoms can be
divided
into even
smaller
parts.

Thomson experimented with a
cathode
ray tube.

The
negatively
charged particles that Thomson discovered are now called
electrons
.
Thomson proposed that electrons were located
throughout
an atom like
plums
in a pudding.
Rutherford's Atomic "Shooting Gallery" (1909)
Ernest Rutherford, a former student of Thomson's, designed an experiment to study the parts of the atom.

He aimed a beam of small, positively charged particles at a thin sheet of gold. Behind the gold he placed a specially coated screen. The coating glowed when hit with a positively charged particle.

What he discovered was shocking.
Where Are The Electrons?
The plum pudding model did not explain how most of the
positive
particles passed
straight
through.

In 1911, Rutherford proposed that at the
center
of the atom was a dense, positively charged part called the
nucleus
.

The majority of the atom is made up of
empty
space with the
electrons
orbiting the nucleus.


In the 20th century, Erwin
Schrodinger
and Werner
Heisenberg
explained that the
location
of an electron could not be
predicted
.

According to the current model of the atom, there are
regions
, called
electron clouds
, where the electron is
likely
to be.
In 1913, Niels Bohr proposed that the electrons
orbit
around the nucleus like
planets
around the sun in certain
paths
or
energy
levels.
Summary
Who was the first to propose matter was made out of "undividable" particles called atoms?
This man based his theory on observing how elements combine.
Who discovered electrons in atoms?
Who discovered that atoms are mostly empty space with a dense, positive nucleus?
Who proposed that electrons are located in levels at certain distances from the nucleus?
What is the current atomic model called?

The Atom
Atoms are small...REALLY small. Even as small as atoms are, they are made up of even smaller things. As technology advances, our understanding of this unseen world grows.
Just How Small is an Atom?
What Is An Atom Made Of?
The
nucleus
is the dense, positively charged center of the atom
.
____________ are positively charged particles in the nucleus.

The mass of a proton is about ____________ . This can also be written as ____________________________________.

This number is so small, scientists created a new unit of measurement called the ___________________ (amu).

Each proton has a mass of about ____ amu.
-24
____________ are particles in the nucleus that have no electrical charge.

Neutrons have a ____________________

than protons, but the difference is so small it is also consider to have a mass of ____ amu.
Almost all of the mass of an atom is in the ________ in the protons and neutrons. .

If the nucleus was as large as a grape, it would have the mass of
9
million metric tons.
Electrons are the ___________ charged particles that orbit the nucleus in ________________ known as electron _________.

It takes more than _______ electrons to equal the mass of just one proton or neutron.
The charges of the electron (-) and proton (+) are _______________________ so they cancel out.

When an atom has the same number of ________ and __________, the atom has no charge. It is called _________.
When the number of electrons and protons are ____________, the atom becomes a ___________ particle called an ______.

When an atom _______ an electron, it becomes negatively charged. It is called an _________.

When an atom _______ an electron, it becomes positively charged. It is called a ________.
Discuss with your table partner:

What do you think would happen if an atom were to lose an electron? Gain an electron?
Build-An-Atom Workshop
Workshop Material
You will need...
A Bohr's model card
18 minimarshmallows (6 each of three colors)
Let's start simple...
Let's build the simplest atom...hydrogen (H)
What happens when you add some protons?
1 Proton and 1 Electron
Helium (He)
2 Protons
2 Neutrons
2 Electrons
Lithium (Li)
3 Protons
4 Neutrons
3 Electrons
Carbon (C)
6 Protons
6 Neutrons
6 Electrons
Isotopes
So, how do you tell which element an atom represents?
The
atomic number
represents the number of protons in an atom.
Hydrogen has one proton, so its atomic number is 1
Helium has two proton, so its atomic number is 2.
Carbon has six protons, so its atomic number is 6
Lithium has three proton, so its atomic number is 3
What difference do you see in these three atoms?
An __________ is an atom that has the same number of __________ (same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element but that has a different number of __________ which means it has a different atomic ________.

The atomic _______ of an element or isotope is calculated by ________ the number of __________ and ___________.
Isotopes are normally named using the element ________ followed by a hyphen (-) and the atomic ________ of the isotope.

Example:

A carbon atom normally has 6 protons, 6 electrons and 6 neutrons. This would be named _______________.

The carbon used in carbon-dating is called ___________ because it has 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 8 neutrons giving it a mass of 14 amu (6 protons + 8 neutrons).
Arranging the Elements
Imagine you log into Netflix and the movies were all mixed up. If there is no search box, how would you be able to find the movie you are wanting to watch. Organizing the elements helps in much the same way.
A penny contains about ___________ atoms of copper and zinc. If you had as many pennies as there are atoms in a penny, you could give each person on the face of the earth about _____________________ pennies. That is ________________ dollars per person.
Forces in Atoms
There are four forces at work in an atom:
An
isotope
is an atom that has the same number of
protons
(same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element but that has a different number of
neutrons
which means it has a different atomic
mass
.

The atomic
mass
of an element or isotope is calculated by
adding
the number of
protons
and
neutrons
.
Isotopes are normally named using the element
name
followed by a hyphen (-) and the atomic
mass
of the isotope.

Example:

A carbon atom normally has 6 protons, 6 electrons and 6 neutrons. This would be named
Carbon-12
.

The carbon used in carbon-dating is called
Carbon-14
because it has 6 protons, 6 electrons, and 8 neutrons giving it a mass of 14 amu (6 protons + 8 neutrons).
______________________ - Everything exerts gravity
________________________ - Opposites attract; likes repel
______________ - This holds the nucleus together.
_____________
- This is important in radioactive atoms.
STATE PERFORMANCE INDICATOR
: Recognize that all matter consists of atoms (0807.9.1)

OBJECTIVE(S)
:
I can describe the size of an atom.
I can name the parts of an atom.
I can describe the relationship between numbers of protons and neutrons and atomic number.
I can state how isotopes differ.
I can calculate atomic masses.
I can name the four forces at work in an atom.

STATE PERFORMANCE INDICATOR:
Use the periodic table to determine the properties of elements (0807.9.9)

OBJECTIVES:
I can describe how Mendeleev arranged elements in the first periodic table.
I can explain how elements are arranged in the modern periodic table.
I can compare metals, nonmetals and metalloids based on their properties and on their location in the periodic table.
I can describe the difference between a period and a group.

BELLRINGER:
Think of a deck of playing cards. Describe at least three ways you could organize the cards in a way that "makes sense."
Discovering a Pattern
Changing the Arrangement
The Periodic Table and Classes of Elements
___________________, a Russian chemist discovered a pattern to the elements in 1869.

First, he wrote the _______ and ___________ of the elements on cards.

Then, he arranged them according to different properties, such as density, appearance, and melting point. When he arranged the elements by _________________________, a pattern appeared.

He discovered that elements with ________properties occurred in a __________ pattern. The elements were _________ which means happening at ________intervals.
DEMONSTRATION - Grouping
(3 Volunteers)
The repeating pattern is so
regular
, Mendeleev was able to
predict
the existence and properties of elements they were unknown in his day.

All of his predictions were right!
A few of the elements ____________ didn't fit the pattern in Mendeleev's table.

In 1914, _________________, a British scientist, determined the number of protons--the ________________--in an atom.

All elements fit the pattern in Mendeleev's periodic table when they were __________ by atomic number.

The periodic law states that the repeating __________ and _________ properties of elements change ____________ with the elements' atomic number.
Decoding the Periodic Table
METALS
NONMETALS
Elements are classified as _______, ___________, and ___________.

The _______ line on the periodic table can help you __________ which elements are metals, which are nonmetals, and which are metalloids.
METALLOIDS
Metals tend to be ______.

Most metals are ___________ (able to be flattened into a sheet).

Most metals are ________ (able to be drawn into a wire).

Most metals are good ____________ of _________ energy and ___________ current.

Most elements are ________.

Metals are found on the _____ of the zigzag line.
Nonmetals are not __________ or ________.

Most non metals are not ______.

Most nonmetals are not good conductors of ________ energy and ________ current.

Nonmetals are found to the _____ of the zigzag line.
Some metalloids are __________ but some are _______.

Some metalloids will conduct electric at high ______________.

Metalloids are also called _________________.

Metalloids are the elements that _______ the zigzag line.
Discovering the Periodic Table
Group 1: Alkali Metals
Group contains:
metals
Electrons in the outer level:
1
Reactivity:
very reactive
Other shared properties:
softness; color of silver; shininess; low density.
Notes:

Alkali metals are soft enough to cut with a knife.

Alkali metals react with water to form hydrogen gas.

Compounds formed from alkali metals have many uses. Sodium chloride (table salt) is used to flavor your food and potassium bromide is used in photography.
Group 2: Alkaline-Earth Metals
Group contains:
metals
Electrons in the outer level:
2
Reactivity:
very reactive but less reactive than alkali metals
Other shared properties:
color of silver; higher densities than alkali metals.
Notes:

Calcium is found in cement, chalk and in bones.

Magnesium is mixed with other metals to make low-density materials used in airplanes.
Group 3-12: Transition Metals
Group contains:
metals
Electrons in the outer level:
1 or 2
Reactivity:
less reactive than alkaline-earth metals
Other shared properties:
shininess; good conductors of thermal energy and electric current; higher densities and melting points than elements in groups 1 and 2 (except for mercury
Notes:

Mercury is used in thermometers.

Some react (Iron); some do not (Titanium)

Some lanthanides are used to make steel.

All actinides are radioactive.
Group 13: Boron Group
Group contains:
one metalloid and five metals
Electrons in the outer level:
3
Reactivity:
reactive
Other shared properties:
solids at room temperature
Notes:

Aluminum is the most abundant metal in the Earth's crust.

Aluminum is used to make lightweight automobile parts, foil, cans and siding.
Group 14: Carbon Group
Notes:

Diamonds and graphite in pencils are both forms of carbon.

Silicon and Germanium are both used to make computer chips.
Group 15: Nitrogen Group
Group contains:
two nonmetals, two metalloids, and two metals
Electrons in the outer level:
5
Reactivity:
varies among the elements
Other shared properties:
solids at room temperature (except for nitrogen)
Notes:

Nitrogen, a gas at room temperature, makes up about 80% of the air we breathe.

Nitrogen is not very reactive, but phosphorus very reactive.
Group 16: Oxygen Group
Group contains:
three nonmetals, two metalloid and one metal
Electrons in the outer level:
6
Reactivity:
reactive
Other shared properties:
all but oxygen are solid at room temperature
Notes:

Oxygen makes up about 20% of the air we breathe.

Oxygen is necessary for substances to burn.
Group 17: Halogens
Group contains: nonmetals
Electrons in the outer level: 7
Reactivity:
very reactive
Other shared properties: poor conductors of electric current; violent reactions with alkali metals to form salts; never in uncombined form in nature.
Notes:

Halogens need to only gain one electron to have a complete outer shell.

Chlorine is used to treat water.

Iodine mixed with alcohol is used in hospitals.
Group 18: Noble Gases
Group contains: nonmetals
Electrons in the outer level: 8
Reactivity:
unreactive
Other shared properties: colorless, odorless gases at room temperature
Notes:

Noble gases have a full set of electrons in their outer shell.

Ordinary light bulbs last longer when filled with argon.

The low density of helium makes balloons float.
Hydrogen
Group contains:
only Hydrogen
Electrons in the outer level:
1
Reactivity:
reactive
Other shared properties:
The properties of Hydrogen do not match the properties of any single group.
Notes:

Hydrogen is found in stars.

Hydrogen is the most abundant element in the universe
Vocabulary
Dimitri Mendeleev
Periodic Table
Atomic Mass
Atomic Number
Period
Group/Family
Metal

Metalloid
Nonmetal
Electron cloud
Energy level
Valence electron
Chemical property
Physical property
The first to organize the elements by
increasing atomic mass.
A list of elements organized by
increasing atomic number (number of protons)
The mass of an atom expressed in atomic mass units. It is the sum of the number of protons and the number of neutrons.
The number of protons and electrons in an atom.
A horizontal row of elements in the periodic table
A vertical column of elements in the periodic table.
An element that is often shiny, that conducts heat and electricity, and can be shaped.
Elements that have properties of both metals and nonmetals.
An element that does not conduct heat and electricity.
A region around the nucleus of an atom where electrons are likely to be found.
Describes the distance of an electron cloud from the nucleus.
An electron that is found in the outermost energy level of an atom. It determines the chemical properties of an atom.
Describes a substances ability to partcipate in a chemical reaction.
Properties described using your five senses.
2 x 10
22
2,000,000,000,000
$20 billion
Protons
1.7 x 10 g
0.000000000000000000000017g
atomic mass unit
1
Neutrons
little more mass
1
nucleus
negatively
energy levels
clouds
1,800
opposite AND equal
protons
electrons
neutral
not equal
charged
ion
gains
anion
loses
cation
isotope
protons
neutrons
mass
mass
adding
protons
neutrons
name
mass
Carbon-12
Carbon-14
Gravitational Force
Electromagnetic Force
Strong Force
Weak Force
Dmitri Mendeleev
names
properties
increasing atomic mass
repeating
similar
periodic
regular
properties
Henry Moseley
atomic number
arranged
chemical
physical
periodically
metals
nonmetals
metalloids
zigzag
recognize
shiny
malleable
ductile
conductors
thermal
electrical
metals
left
malleable
ductile
shiny
electric
thermal
right
malleable
brittle
temperatures
semiconductors
border
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