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Immediate Constituent Analysis

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on 10 October 2014

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Transcript of Immediate Constituent Analysis

Immediate Constituent Analysis
Immediate Constituent Analysis (IC Analysis)
Phrases
Syntactic Structures
What is IC analysis?
Immediate Constituent Analysis, a term introduced by Leonard Bloomfield in 1933, was developed to work out a scientific ‘discovery procedure’ to find out about the basic units of linguistics.
The principal underlying theory is to cut a sentence into smaller parts till the smallest unit (ultimate constituent), the morpheme, is reached.
What are ultimate constituents?
The ultimate constituents are the smallest meaningful units which any given construction can be broken down to.
A sentence is seen not as a sequence or a "string" of elements, but as being made up of "
layers
" of constituents, each cutting point, or "
node
' in the diagram being given an identifying label.
Sentence


Subject Predicate


Adjective Noun Verb Particle


Poor John ran away
Noun Phrase (NP)

A noun phrase is a syntactic unit which consists of a noun and all the words and word groups that cluster around the noun and add to its meaning.


Verbal Phrase (VP)
A verbal phrase is a syntactic unit which consists of a verb and all the words and word groups that cluster around the verb and add to its meaning, functioning as auxiliaries, modifiers and complements.
Prepositional
Phrase (PP)
A prepositional phrase is a syntactic unit which consists of a preposition and a word/word group that completes its meaning.
Adverbial
An adverbial (also called adverb phrase) is a syntactic unit which consists of an adverb and all the words and word groups that cluster around the adverb and add to its meaning.
It generally specifies time, place, manner, reason, etc., and modifies a verb, an adjective or fellow adverb.
Structure of Predication
The structure of predication is the relationship which exists between the subject and the predicate of the sentence.

S + V

Sam

is sleeping
.
Sam and Pat

are walking down the street.
Structure of Modification
The structure of modification is such a relationship which means that there is the structural dependence of one grammatical unit upon another; one element is considered ‘more important’ than the others. This element is known as the head, or headword of the structure of the modification.

premodifier(s) + Head + postmodifier(s)

Structure of Complementation

The structure of complementation traditionally refers to the relationship which exists between the verb and the words and word groups that complete the meaning of the action specified by the verb. Since in most languages these complements come after the verb, the structure can be represented as follows:

Verb + complement(s)

Tree Diagram
What are phrases?
A phrase can be considered the lowest syntactic unit.
It can be defined as a syntactic unit that contains more than one word and lacks the subject-predicate relationship.
Headword
- one word which is more important than the others
Modifier
- some other single-word or word group elements that specify, modify or complete the headword in various ways.
Specifiers/premodifiers
- placed in front of the headword or
Postmodifiers/complements
- placed after the headword.
A phrase contains:
1.
Restrictors
: especially, only, merely, just
2.
Pre-determiners
: half, double, both, twice
3.
Determiners
:
(a) Articles: a/an, the
(b) Demonstratives: this, that, these, those
(c) Possessives: my, his, own, Samran’s
4.
Ordinals
: first, second, last, next
5.
Quantifiers
: many, several, few, less
6.
Adjective Phrases
: good, very good,
good, nice looking
7.
Classifiers
: a city college
a leather bag
a summer dress
Noun Modifiers
The only obligatory element in a noun phrase is the head noun, which means that a noun phrase minimally consists of a noun.
1. NP → N (NP consists of N)
2. NP → Det N (NP consists of Det + N)
3. NP → Det N PP
(NP consists of Det + N + PP)
4. NP → Det A N
(NP consists of Det + A + N)
5. NP → (Det) (A) N (PP)

Noun phrase-structure rules
Her play
NP

det. N

poss.

her play

NP → Det N
NP → Det N PP
The pen on the table
NP

NP PP

det. N Prep. NP

Art. det. N

Art.

the pen on the table

His old leather purse
NP


det. Adj. N

poss.

his old purse
NP → Det A N
VP → V NP
1. VP → V
2. VP → V NP
3. VP → V NP PP
4. VP → V (NP) (PP)
Verb phrase-structure rules
reads a book
VP

V NP

Aux. V. det. N

Tense read Art.

Present a book
Present – read
reads
VP → V NP PP
saw a movie at the theater
VP

V NP

Aux. V. det. N PP

Tense see Art. Prep. NP

Past det. N
Past – see
saw a movie at the theater

PP → PREP NP
on the desk
PP

Prep. NP

det. N

Art.

on the desk
PP → PREP NP
Coordination means a word group can be coordinated with a similar structure using connectors or coordinating conjunctions.

conjunct + connector + conjunct
word + connector + word
phrase + connector + phrase
clause + connector + clause
Structure of Coordination
Verbal Elements
Linking (copulative) verbs - has complement but no passive

Intransitive verbs - has neither complement nor passive.

Transitive verbs - has both complement and passive.
Kinds of Complements
Subjective complement
The woman is a
nurse.

Direct object
He found a
friend.
Indirect object
He gave his
friend
two books.
Objective complement
They consider the job
finished
.
Mabel

and
Sam
met at the park.

The little rabbit
and
t
he big squirrel
ran down the hill.

The orchestra played a symphony
, and
the choir sang.
The plane took off.
Sentence

S P


NP VP


Adj. N V Particle


The plane took off

1. Uncle Vernon had been treating him like a child.
2. The woman was sleeping peacefully.
3. He jumped behind the wheel.
4. Her frightened eyes jumped from him to me.
5. A man named McBride had killed a convenience store clerk with a shotgun in Fresno in 1996.

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