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Greek/Roman Mythology

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Bailey Ferguson

on 15 October 2012

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Transcript of Greek/Roman Mythology

by Shelby McKeand, Bailey Ferguson, and Casey Saunders Greek/Roman Mythology The Twelve Olympians GODS AND GODDESSES He was the king of the Gods and the ruler of Mount Olympus. He is the god of the sky, weather, thunder, lightning, law, order, and fate. Zeus was the youngest child of Cronus and Rhea, Titans. His Roman name was Jupiter. ZEUS HERA Goddess of marriage, women, childbirth, heirs, kings, and childbirth, she is the wife to the all-powerful god Zeus. She is also a child of Cronus and Rhea, and she is their youngest daughter. She becomes extremely jealous of Zeus's lovers and his demigod children and constantly seeks revenge upon them. Her Roman name is Juno. God of the sea, rivers, drought, and earthquakes. He was the middle son of Cronus and Rhea. He is married to Nereid Amphitrite, but also shares many lovers. His Roman name is Neptune. POSEIDON God of wine, parties,festivals, chaos, drunkenness, and young pleasures. He is also a patron god of theater. He is the son of Zeus and a mortal princess named Semele. He is married to the Cretan princess Ariadne. He is the youngest Olympian, and the only one to have been born a mortal. His Roman name is Bacchus. DIONYSUS God of music, healing, plague, the sun, prophecies, and poetry. He is the son of Zeus and Leto, and also the twin brother of the goddess Artemis. He fathered many children, some of which include Asclepius, Troilus, Aristaues, and Orpheus. Some rumors may convey that he also shared as many male lovers as he did female. Background (history) The titans, or the elder gods, ruled the earth before the Olympians overthrew them. Cronus Two of the oldest literary sources for several myths are Homer's Iliad and Odyssey. Cronus was the son of Gaea and Uranus. He became the ruling Titan by killing his father, which was encouraged by Gaea. His and his wife's, Rhea, offspring were the first Olympians. To ensure his power Cronus ate each of his children after they were born. This worked until Rhea decided to take things into her own hands. RHEA Titan daughter of Uranus and Gaia. She is known as the "mother of the gods" in the way that she was believed to have given birth to Zeus, Poseidon, Hades, Hera, and Demeter. After Cronus ate four of her five children, her vengeance was tricking Cronus into believing that he had eaten Zeus also, when she had actually given him a rock wrapped in swaddling clothes. Oceanus Referred to as the "World River". It is believed that all of the ocean nymphs, aka three thousand Oceanids, all the rivers in the world, fountains, and lakes came from Oceanus and his sister/consort Tethys's union. During the war between the Titans and the Olympians, Oceanus was one of the few Titans who did not choose a side, but instead withdrew from the battles all together. Tethys Mother of all the chief rivers, such as the Nile, the Alpheus, and the Maeander. In the war against the Titans, Tethys raised Hera as her step daughter when Rhea brought her to her. Tethys is sometimes confused with another sea-nymph Thetis, the mother of Achillles. Iapetus Son of Uranus and Gaia, and fathered Atlas, Prometheus, Epimetheus, Menoetius with an Oceanoid named Clymene or Asia. He was the Titan of Mortal Life, while his son Prometheus was the creator of mankind. He was mentioned in the Iliad as being imprisoned in Tartarus with Cronus, his brother. In Language Some of these words include:
Morphine- coming from the God of sleep, Morpheus.
Harpy- An unpleasant woman
Adonis- A handsome man
Trojans- A computer virus Some expressions include:
An Achilles heel
Having the Midas touch
Lying in the arms of Morpheus
Opening Pandora's box
Rich as Craesus
The face that launched 1000 ships In the West Such examples of Greek mythology in modern culture: The Bangles' top ten hit "Venus"topped the charts in the 1980s. Mythology has been incorporated into movies and television shows, such as Disney's "Hercules." One of the world's most recognized paintings is Botticelli's "The Birth Of Venus". Operas also dive into Greek and Roman mythology. Offenbach's "Orpheus in the Underworld" is a famous example. In Science Greek and Roman impact in science can be seen in any clear night. Many constellations are named after characters or monsters from Greek and Roman myths. APOLLO Festivals Social Customs & Beliefs City Dionysia In honor of Dionysos, people attend Dionysos's theatre to see plays preformed from sunrise to sunset. One of the most successful playwrights was Sophocles, who won first prize eighteen times. This festival also includes sacrifice. Isthmian Games They were established in 581 BC, and they were held every two years. The games were reorganized by the hero Theseus. This festival honors Poseidon. Olympic Games Olympic athletes train for ten months before obtaining eligibility to compete in the Games, in which time their trainers advise them on diet, exercise, and hygiene. Thousands attend the Games, and the winners greeted with parties and feasts upon arrival at home. These festivities are to honor Zeus. Roman Sacrifice Romans sacrificed bulls, sheep, and pigs.
People worship their gods in temples, where they made their sacrifices of animals and precious items. Romans believed that blood sacrifice was the best way to communicate with the gods. Jupiter often was sacrificed sheep.

Some gods got their own worship temples. But a temple dedicated to all gods is called a pantheon. DEMETER Goddess of fertility, agriculture, nature, and the seasons. We derive our word "cereal" from the Roman and Latin equivalent of her name - Ceres. ARTEMIS Virgin goddess of the hunt, virginity, childbirth, the moon, and all animals. She was the twin sister of Apollo. Her Roman name is Diana. HERMES God of commerce and thieves. He was also the messenger of the gods. He was the son of Zeus and Maia, a nymph. He was wed to Dryope, and fathered Pan, god of nature. ATHENA Virgin goddess of wisdom, crafts, defense, and strategic warfare. She was born directly from Zeus's head dressed in full battle armor after he swallowed her mother, the Oceanoid Metis. Her Roman equivalent is Minerva. ARES God of war, violence, and bloodshed. Son of Zeus and Hera, all gods hated him, excluding Aphrodite. His Roman name is Mars. Mythology in Modern Society All of the planets, aside from Earth, were named after Roman gods and goddesses. Mercury-
Pluto- messenger God, Hermes love & beauty goddess, Aphrodite god of war, Ares ruler of the gods, Zeus the titan Cronus Uranus god of the sea, Poseidon god of the Underworld, Hades Mythology is also incorporated in other ways, like the god of victory, Nike, who also was said to be able to run at super fast speeds, is also a popular shoe brand. Amazon is a race of warrior women in mythology, but also is a huge online shopping website. A trident is a three pronged spear used by Poseidon, god of the seas, but also is a type of chewing gum that is supposed to make your mouth water. APHRODITE Goddess of love, beauty, and desire. She is the daughter of Zeus and an Oceanoid named Dione, but some stories also say that she was born from the sea when Uranus's blood dripped into it. She was married to Hephaestus but also had many affairs, most famously with Ares. HEPHAESTUS He is the master craftsman and blacksmith for all gods on Mount Olympus, and is also the god of fire and the forge. He makes all the weapons for the gods. He is married to Aphrodite, and unlike most of the other gods, rarely has many affairs. He is depicted as a crippled and broken down man. His Roman name is Vulcan. Creatures Medusa One of the three Gorgon sisters, who all have serpents for hair. Legend says that if you look Medusa in the eyes, you'll turn to stone. Her sisters are Stheno, the most murderous of the sisters, and Euryale, who had death-bellowing screams. Minotaur A monster with the head of a bull and the body of a man. It was said that this monster was kept in the Cretan Labyrinth that Daedalus designed for King Minos's wife's son, the monster called Minotaur.

He was eventually slain by Thesus. Cyclopes One-eyed giants who live on the island of Sicily and shepherd flocks of sheep. Most notable of the Cyclopes would be Polythemus, who battles Odysseus and was ultimately blinded by the hero. Cupid and Psyche A Roman Legend Venus, goddess of beauty and love, became very jealous of a girl who was extremely beautiful, named Psyche. She tells her son Cupid, so that he can fly to her while shes sleeping and strike her with one of his golden arrows, and Venus can place a disgusting creature for her to fall in love with when she wakes up. Awestruck by her beauty, he accidentally scratched himself with the arrow, causing him to fall in love with her. He reports back to Venus, who is outraged by his inability to complete his mission. She places a curse on Psyche, which prevents her of finding a proper suitor. Cupid is devastated, and decides that his retribution will be to refuse to shoot his arrows.
After months of no mating, love, or marriage, Venus's temple begins to fall and the Earth to grow old. Venus begs Cupid to shoot his arrows and regain harmony in the world. He refuses unless she will lift her curse upon Psyche, which she does eventually, with the promise that Cupid will once again shoot his arrows that get her so much praise. Cupid shoots his arrows wildly with happiness, and the world is filled with love, mating, and marriage once again. Meanwhile, Psyche's parents are angry that she has not yet found a proper husband, so they consult an oracle. The oracle tells them to abandon their daughter on the nearest mountain, for her beauty is is not meant for mere mortals. Zephryus, the West Wind, carried her to a magnificent place where she was tended to by invisible servants until nightfall, when her promised groom comes to her. Cupid visits her every night, but does not reveal himself, deciding that he wants to wait until the moment is right.
Cupid then allows the West Wind to take Psyche back to her sisters, but warns her not to listen to any arguments and that she should wait to discover her true form. Psyche, who is pregnant with Cupid's child at the time, is convinced by her her sisters that there is a rumor that a serpent impregnated her, and has plans to eat her and the unborn child when it becomes hungry. For protection, they tell her to keep an oil lamp and a knife in her bedroom. She awaited her suitor the next night, but when she lights her lamp, she sees Cupid in his godlike form. She kisses him, and he awakens startled and flies away. Psyche then goes to the temple of Venus herself to look for him, and Venus, struck with rage, orders Psyche to go to the Underworld and get some of Proserpina's beauty for herself, as she feels that she is lacking in beauty. She gives her a special box to keep it in, and Psyche does indeed keep the promise she made to Venus, and travels to the Underworld. She gets the box of beauty, but once she was above ground, she peeked inside and decided to take a little beauty for herself. Instead, a sheep rises from the box and overcomes her. Cupid, who had forgiven Psyche, flies to her,and takes the sheep away from her. He puts it back in the box, and sends her on her way once more. Cupid then flies back to Olympus and begs Jupiter to help them. Jupiter calls a full council meeting of the gods, and they decide that Cupid will marry Psyche. Jupiter then gives Psyche a glass of wine laced with ambrosia, which will grant her immortality. Immortal, Psyche and Venus begrudgingly reach a consensus of peace.
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