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Transcript of India
Himalayan Region: 3° C to -18° C
Assam/West Bengal: 18° C to 29° C
Indo-Gangetic Plain: -2° C to 50° C
West Coastal Region: 27° C
Peninsular Interior: 29° C to 38° C
Northern Deccan: 16° C to 38° C
East Coast: 32° C to 38° C
Indians practice many religions including Hinduism, Islam, Christianity, Sikhism, Buddhism, Jainism, Zoroastrianism, and Tantra.
India is a very diverse country with people with many different ethnicities and cultural backgrounds.
Traditional Indian Clothing
Men: Dhoti, Turban
Women: Sari, Choli
Unisex: Kurta, Salwaar Kameez
Official Name: Republic of India
Capital: New Delhi
Head of Government: Prime Minister Narendra Modi (as of 26th May 2014)
Government: Federal Republic
Independence: From UK on 15th August, 1947
Currency: Indian Rupee
Official Language is Hindi and the second official language is English. In total, 16000 languages are spoken in India and 21 languages are recognized in the constitution as regional languages.
Hindu: 80.5% Christian: 2.3% Others: 1.8%
Muslim: 13.4% Sikh:1.9% Unspecified: 0.1%
Mongoloid and others- 3%
A conventional Indian family follows the Patriarchal System.
The man exerts authority in the family, the father has control over children.
The wife and husband maintain the stability of the family together.
Boys are preferred because they have to fulfill ancestral wishes/obligations.
Double standards are still there for boys and girls but change is coming especially in the cities than the villages.
Polygamy was allowed before the 50's but is not allowed anymore other than among Muslims because their religion allows it.
Rites of Passages
Many traditional Indian families still practice arranged marriages. The process of arranged marriages are as follows:
Parents look for a suitable partner for their children from the families of the same caste and religion.
Young Indians seldom marry outside of their culture, religion and economical class to avoid any conflicts between families.
Through arrange marriages, two families enter a relationship where if the couple are having troubles, the families try to work together and help the couple out so the marriage is not broken.The two families enter a bond of trust.
Rites of Passages (cont'd)
Modern Indian families don't mind inter castes and if the kids choose their own partners. For ex. India's first female Prime Minister, Indira Gandhi, married a Persian.Many prefer to be single and a handful experiment with living together without a formal commitment. Educated Indians have modernized the external forms of marriage. Urban Indian couples retain from basic rituals but still hold wedding receptions which are very posh and extravagant.
"Take seven steps with me, my friend.
Be my mate and blend with me"
- Marriage Chant
Rites of Passage (cont'd)
Funeral practices of different religions vary greatly in India. Death is not the final stage of life, many Hindus believe that a person who has lived a noble life with good deeds will release the soul from life/death cycles (incarnation) and secure eternal liberation. Hindus call this
and Buddhists call this
. Both mean "attaining a state of nothingness". The surviving family and relatives perform rituals and the eldest son performs the last rites if their father is deceased, with the help of a priest. The dead body is dressed in new white clothing and taken to the cremation grounds and their remains are thrown in the holy river Ganges (Hindus). Hindus and Buddhists are cremated, Muslims and Christians are buried. Victims of epidemics are generally cast away in water so as to not offend the evil spirits who attacked them (Hindus).
In country sides, people revel in the outdoor/indoor games such as Chess, Parcheesi, "Five Stones", street shows and other traditional pastimes and competitive games such as
In cities, games introduced by the British are popular. Bengalis prefer soccer, Punjabs prefer hockey, and the residents of Mumbai prefer cricket.
In mountain regions,climbing,hiking and skiing are seasonal sports.
In coastal regions, swimming, fishing and boat riding are the obvious favourites.
For entertainment, India is known for it's traditional storytelling, folk singers, puppeteers. The puppeteers often play out famous folklore such as the
And of course, Indian Cinema- BOLLYWOOD. India is the world's largest producer of films, producing 1288 feature films as of 2009. Bollywood movies are best known for it's colourful costumes, catchy songs and dances. Golden Age of Bollywood took place around 1940's to 1960's, same as Hollywood, after the independence of India.
Once there lived a King named Dasharatha, who had three wives and four sons. His eldest son, Rama, was exiled for 14 years, just when he was about to be crowned because the king was bound by the promise he had made to his youngest queen. When Rama was in the forest with his wife, Sita and brother Lakshman, a wicked and lustful king, Ravana, came in guise of a sage and abducted Sita. Rama and Lakshman with the help of the monkey god, Hanuman, went in search of Sita. They killed Ravana and his mighty army and Rama returned to rule. In this love story, Rama stands for righteous duty, Sita for purity and truth, and Ravana for arrogance and greed. The Ramayana is a living tradition in Indian and other parts of Asia.
Holidays and Festvals
New Years Day- Jan. 1st
Republic Day- Jan. 26th
Independence Day- Aug 15th
Mahatma Gandhi's B-day: Oct. 2nd
Hindu New Year (mid March to mid April)
Vaishaka (associated with Buddha's birth, enlightenment and nirvana)
Sikh New Year- Vaishakhi
Raskha Bandan (between brothers and sisters only)
Karva Chauth (associated with the Lunar Calendar, between husbands and wives only)
Shraddha (Hindus) and Shab-e- Bharat (Muslims)
Festivals Associated with Myths:
Durga Puja (associated with the Goddesses, especially the goddess Durga)
Gods and Saints Birthdays:
Lord Rama's Birthday
Lord Krishna's Birthday
Christmas (Jesus Christ)
Prophet Mohammed's Birthday- Milad-un-Nabi
Indian Cuisine is complex and diverse. A wide variety of spices, nuts and fruits are used in cooking. Standard Indian meals consists of vegetables, meat or fish, a type of grain, some yogurt, and lentil soup (dal).
Percussion: Tabla and Ghatam
Strings: Saranghi and Sitar
Body Rattles: Payals (anklets), girls wear it when dancing. A unique type of perscussion, great for keeping beat and adding effects while danicing.
And finally.... Music!!
(Basically Bollywood Music)
(Basically Hippie Music of the 60's)
Folk Music: (Bhangra from the Punjab Region and the UK)
Thank you for watching
the presentation and now you may enjoy some homemade SAMOSAS!
Interesting fact: The Swastika was abbreviated from the Hindu Peace Symbol.