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Ecozones - The Atlantic Maritime
Transcript of Ecozones - The Atlantic Maritime
- New Brunswick
- Nova Scotia
- Prince Edward Island Where is this Ecozone? It only covers 2% of Canada's landmass Vegetation in the Atlantic Maritime The vegetation of the Atlantic Maritime is classified as mixed forest. In fact, 76% of the land mass is covered in forest. The land is divided into three regions. The first one is, Boreal This region contains a lot of fir and spruce trees. It stretches from the Northwestern tip of New Brunswick into the Gaspè Penninsula. St. Lawrence/ Great Lakes This region contains many red pine, yellow birch, Eastern white pine and Eastern hemlock. Acadian Covering 44% of the entire Ecozone are a mixed forest of both coniferous and deciduous trees and species. Hardwoods such as sugar maple, beech and yellow birch dominate the shallow slopes and hillsides. The coniferous trees, especially red spruce, are concentrated in the moist soils and coastal fringes. *All three regions are interlaced with numerous lakes and wetlands* Moss, lichen, fern and heathers all occupy the swampy areas and rocky barrens. Also, seaweed and kelp grow along the exposed coastlines. The Acadian forest is full of a variety of wildflowers. The purple loosestrife is an invasive plant that is now over populated in a lot of swamps and ponds. Soil In the uplands, repeated glaciation produced shallow, stoney soils. The inhospitable highlands have a cold, wet climate and acidic soils that hold vast forests. The Coastal lowlands of the Nothumberland plane accommodate the greater share of the population and agricultural activities. Deeper soils are a result of marine depositions and glacial erosion of underlying sandstone, shale, and limestone bedrock. A majority of the Ecozone is overlain with by nutrient poor Podzol soil and Luvisol soil. Climate in the Atlantic Maritime The proximity of the Atlantic Ocean creates a cool, moderate and moist maritime climate. Most of the Ecozone get's a long mild winter (only getting to about -4 degrees Celsius) and cool summer (mean daily 18 degrees Celsius) During late spring and early summer the cold Labrador current and the warm gulf stream meet and create banks of sea fog over coastal areas. Average precipitation varies from 1 000mm inland, to 1425mm along the coast. The average annual growing season ranges from 1 500 to over 1 750 growing days above 5 degrees Celsius. Frost free days range from 80 in the New Brunswick highlands to 180 along the coast. With a storm frequency higher than anywhere else in Canada, sunshine doesn't happen all too much. Climate in the Atlantic Maritime Geologic History The Atlantic Maritime started forming when layers of sedimentary rock being uplifted and folded during the Paleozoic Era - this is when the super continent Pangea formed. When Pangea formed 300 million years ago, the Appalachian Mountains formed. They are the oldest highland region in North America. They used to have jagged points, but glaciation and erosion wore down the mountain peaks and made glacial valleys. After the last ice age, the land sank and left small inlets along the East Coast, then they were flooded by the sea. Some volcanic activity created igneous and metamorphic rock. That resulted in plateaus of rock containing metallic minerals, iron, zinc and also coal. iron zinc plateau glaciation of Canada Landform Region For one, it has the Appalachian Mountains in it, which also means there are glacial valleys. Numerous lakes cover the rugged regions of igneous rock as volcanic and granite which are covered by a thin layer of soil, rivers and streams. Over 11 000km of coastline are deeply indented by tidal inlets and large sand dunes. Almost 4 000 off shore islands spotted with lagoons and marshes ring Nova Scotia. Red sandstone cliffs and hard volcanic rock in the Bay of Fundy tower over intertidal beaches that go up 5km wide. Major Industries Fishing Industry Fishing is one of the biggest industries in the Maritime provinces. Not only does it provide many jobs fishing on boats, but it also provides jobs for people working outside of the industry. For example, people who work in the canneries, and people who sell fish at fish markets. Oil and Gas Oil and gas are found in pockets underneath layers of rock in on land and in the ocean. In the Maritime's, there are a couple of main off shore oil rigs in the ocean. One is found near Nova Scotia. This also provides jobs for more than just the people who work on the rig. People who work on the ferries that transport the oil and workers back and forth from the land to the rig. As well as people who have to bring equipment out on boats. Forestry In the Appalachian Mountains, that's where forestry happens.Trees are cut down and used for paper, pulp, cardboard, furniture, etc. These product are be shipped across Canada and even to other countries. Once again, many jobs result from this industry. For example, long distance truck drivers are needed to bring logs from place to place, as well as people bringing equipment. Another way is creates jobs is for the people who work in the mill. Population in the Atlantic Maritime Nova Scotia Prince Edward Island New Brunswick Quebec (Gaspe) Density Distribution Age Total Population 25 people per square kilometer 17 people per square kilometer 10 people per square kilometer 11 people per square kilometer 135 294 people 908 007 people 729 498 people 15 163 people Population of the whole Atlantic Maritime = 1 786 962 people Ethnic Make - Up The people who were coming to Canada in the early 17th century were explorers coming from France who settled the East Coast first. But, in late 1763, it turned the British control. After that many other people from European countries came over. New Englanders, Germans, Swiss, English, Irish, and Scots, as well as African American Loyalists. Cultures There are two main cultures that are in the Atlantic Maritime's: Acadian Celtic and Gaelic Until the end of the 19th century, Acadian people lived culturally isolated from the exterior world. This allowed them to preserve the traditions of their ancestors, their speech, their cuisine and celebrations were passed down generation to generation. Gaelic is a Celtic language that helped shape Nova Scotia to be the way it is today. Hundreds of years ago Gaelic speaking immigrants from Ireland and Scotland came and settled in Nova Scotia. Irish Gaels settled urban areas, like Halifax and Sydney, as well as some places in rural Cape Breton. Scottish Gaels settled in Eastern Nova Scotia and throughout Cape Breton. Characteristic's of Major Communities Halifax, Nova Scotia Fredericton, New Brunswick Charlottetown, P.E.I Founded in 1749, Halifax has many attractions that are related to seafaring and it's location on the map. All along the Halifax waterfront there are things like museums, harbor cruises and tall ships. Downtown Halifax has art galleries, museums, theaters, and boutique shops. Not to mention the the architecture from the 17th and 18th centuries. Another major attraction is the Halifax Citadel National Historic Site of Canada, as well as Royal Nova Scotia International Tattoo. In Fredericton there are many art galleries and heritage museums. There are also a lot of outdoor activities to partake in such as canoeing or kayaking down the
St. John River, as well as a 85km of river front biking trail. Fredericton also is home to the world class golf course, Kingswood Live Fredericton entertainment in the Tannery Entertainment District. Environmental Issues One big issue is marine life and birds dying from the oil that is being spilled into the ocean and washing up on the shores. They either get stuck in it and can't get it off, or they eat it and die. The reason there is oil in the waters is because ships are illegally dumping it in the ocean, or they have low maintenance of the ship and it's spilling out. There is a fine for dumping oil into the ocean, but the problem is it's hard to figure out which oil the ship came from. Environmental Issues Some things the government is trying to do to help this problem is hire more Coast Guard. That way, the more people to see which ships are spilling what. Dawn Soap For 25 years the soap company Dawn has been helping out with oil spills. They figured out that Dawn soap has the perfect formula for getting oil off of animals. Its called the Make A Difference Campaign Charlottetown has many activities and festivals. They celebrate the Festival of Lights, and the PEI International Shellfish Festival. It has a lot of walking trails and water side board walks. Most people are between ages 15 to 65 -
630 140 people Most people are between ages 15 to 64 -
513 960 people Most people are between ages 15 to 64 -
94 360 people Most people are between ages 15 to 64 -
10 330 people Clustered - little land mass Clustered more along the coast Clustered Clustered All of the provinces are located on or near the ocean Mixed Forest Boreal Forest Saint Lawrence River Hemlock Tree Moss and lichen Soil Beach Sea Fog Climate graphs for each province Appalachian Mountains Bay of Fundy French Settlers Europe Downtown Halifax Downtown Bike Trail Charlottetown Board Walk Coast Guard Oil in the ocean References http://www12.statcan.gc.ca/census-recensement/2011/as-sa/fogs-spg/Facts-pr-eng.cfm?Lang=eng&GK=PR&GC=12 I got this information from Stats Canada, so I'm not really sure what to put for this one MacDonald, Stella. (September 27th 2012) Atlantic Maritime Zone. Retrieved January 7th 2012 from http://prezi.com/w9wqid0regmx/ecozone-project-atlantic-maritime/ http://canadianbiodiversity.mcgill.ca/english/ecozones/atlanticmaritime/atlanticmaritime.htm I got this from McGill so I again am not sure how I'm suppoed to reference it *All three cities are the Capital of the Province*