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# Transformer

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by

## Abu Ammar

on 2 November 2015

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#### Transcript of Transformer

Transformers
Voltage Regulation
2.Why Transformers are Important?
Make electricity generation possible at the most economic generator voltage level
Make electric power transmission take place at the most economic transmission voltage
Supply electric power to users at a safe and suitable voltage
Autotransformer
By:
Mohd Fakhizan Romlie, PhD
email: fakhizan.romlie@petronas.com.my
Learning Outcomes
1.What is a Power Transformer?
A device that changes AC electric power voltage level to AC electric power another voltage level at the same frequency through magnetic field action
Consist of two or more coils of wire wrapped around a common ferromagnetic core
Construction & How it works
Ideal Transformer
vs
Real Transformer

Ideal Transformer
Real Transformer
Per Unit System
Three Phase Transformer
How does a Transformer Work ?
Construction
The permeability of the core, approaches infinity
No core losses
No resistance in the windings
No leakage flux
Therefore:
Schematic Diagram
Example
Power

Impedance Transformation
Understand the purpose of a transformer in a power system
Know the voltage, current and impedance relationships across the windings of an ideal transformer
Understand how real transformers approximate the operation of an ideal transformer
Be able to explain how copper losses, leakage flux, hysteresis and eddy current are modeled in a transformer equivalent circuit
Use the transformer equivalent circuit to find the voltage and current transformations across a transformer
Be able to calculate the losses and efficiency
Be able to derive the equivalent circuit of a transformer from measurement
Understand per unit system
Be able to calculate voltage regulation
Understand auto transformer
Understand three phase transformers
Solution
LOSSES
ACCOUNTED
???
1. Copper Losses
2. Eddy Current Losses
4. Leakage Flux
3. Hysteresis Losses
EQUIVALENT CIRCUIT
OPEN CIRCUIT TEST
EXAMPLE
Referred to Primary Side
Referred to Secondary Side
Approximation - current excitation branch 2-3% only
HOW TO DETERMINE PARAMETERS?
SHORT CIRCUIT TEST
Resistive heating losses in the primary and secondary winding of transformer. Proportional to square of current.
Resistive heating losses in the core of transformer. Proportional to square of voltage applied to transformer.
Associated with magnetic domains in the core. It is a function of voltage applied to the transformer.
Flux escape from the core and pass through only one side of the transformer. Its produce leakage inductance in the primary and secondary winding.
How?
1. Select 2 base quantities
- usually selected - voltage and power
2. Use electrical law
Example