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Peace with FARC

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Juan David Parra

on 5 May 2017

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Transcript of Peace with FARC

Some relevant facts
Population: 47.121.089
GDP per capita: US$ 8,960
USA: US 46,569
Brazil: US$ 9,716
Chile: US 15,788
Wealth Gini: 55.9
Sweden: 25.0
Venezuela: 44.8
Chile: 52.1
3,9 million displaced people between 1997 and 2011

3,5% of GDP in Defense

Sources: DANE, Penn State University, World Bank, CINEP, Revista Semana
The negotiation agenda
1. Agrarian Reform
2. Political participation
3. End of the conflict
4. Drug trafficking
5. Victims of the conflict
THE PEACE PROCESS WITH FARC
Some reflections after 50 years of war in Colombia
Drawing a line in time...
1900
2013
1964
1930
1949
1968
1982
1984
The Revolutionary Armed Forces of Colombia (FARC) was founded in 1964 as a peasant-based army
The Rebel group was conformed by 140 men under the command of Pedro Antonio Marín , AKA Manuel Marulanda Vélez
16,000 "Bloodhounds" commanded by the Pentagon "Hawks" against 2,000 rebels
The bombing of Marquetalia in 1964
1958
La Violencia...
- Around 200,000 people died during this period and 2 million were violently displaced (18% of the population of the country).

- The National front is established in 1958. The government fights liberal and communist rebel groups (party that became illegal in 1953)

- Few years later (In 1961) the Colombian Communist Party announces the combination of all forms of struggle
The Colombian National Party is founded, as part of the International Socialist
“During the 1930’s violence emerged as consequence of the armed peasant movement. This was not a continuation of post-independence wars but the result of land distribution and its effects over the living conditions of peasants”
Fuente: Álvaro Albán, Revista de Economía Institucional, 2011
1959
Artículo 1º Adóptanse como legislación permanente los siguientes Decretos legislativos dictados a partir del 21 de mayo de 1965:
……………………..
El Decreto 3398 de diciembre 24 de 1965, con excepción de los artículos 30 y 34;
Ley 48 de 1968
Decreto 3398 de 1965
"Por el cual se organiza la defensa nacional"
Under the intellectual leadership of one of FARC's most influential ideologists, (AKA) Jacobo Arenas, the rebel army turns into FARC-EP, as an acronym for the Army of the People (Ejercito del Pueblo).
"The two groups started as financial allies, but in the 1980s they competed for control of valuable coca farming land. The tension between the traffickers and the FARC increased as the narco-trafficking groups reinvested their profits by buying agricultural land in Colombia. These purchases displaced campesinos and fueled the FARC's call for agrarian reform" (Cook, JSS, 2011)
Drug Cartels
Source: Cárdenas, 2001
1987
"The FARC survived in the 1970s thanks to support from poor campesinos (rural peasants) and external ideological partners, such as Russian and Cuban communist groups" (Cook, JSS, 2011)
Some reflections ....
Sources: Colombian Ministry of Finance and Department of National Planning
Plan Colombia
FARC-EP
Source: Department of National Planning
FARC-EP
Source: CINEP
First peace process attempt with FARC-EP under the government or president Belisario Betancur.

- Bilateral cease-fire
- Political participation of FARC-EP
Broad Agenda
Negotiation with M-19 under the government of president Virgilio Barco

- No bilateral cease-fire
- M-19 delivered weapons
- FARC-EP did not participate
Narrow agenda
Political genocide
1998
Broad Agenda
Negotiation with FARC-EP under the government of president Andrés Pastrana


- Bilateral cease-fire
- 12 point agenda with 47 sub-points
- Public opinion was very critical
2002
Some ideas
1. The agreement on land reform deals with an structural cause of the armed conflict in Colombia
2. The other points of the agenda seem to be coherent with the evolution of the armed conflict in Colombia
3. It is important to recognize history before talking about peace
New peace process under the government of president Juan Manuel Santos.


- No cease-fire
- No media covering the negotiations
- 5 points agenda:
1. Agrarian Reform
2. Political participation
3. End of the conflict
4. Drug trafficking
5. Victims of the conflict
Narrow-Broad agenda
Mean Latin America: 1.58%
Juan David Parra
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