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Surrealism Art

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Ernest Gueva

on 19 March 2014

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Transcript of Surrealism Art

Salvador Dalí
What is Surrealism?
What is surrealism?
André Breton
Two types of Surrealism Art

Being descendent of the "Dada Art", Surrealism and Dadaism had a very common way of thinking, referring that the subconscious was the best inspiration for art.
Surrealism art and writing was considered disturbing for the society of that age, destroying the traditional modes of thinking and art.

Some surrealists agreed that the subconscious was the key to accessing the imagination, but there were differences on their thinking on how they viewed the subconscious mind.
Some of this artists wanted an escape from their ordinary life, and they acquired it by making this new, controversial, eccentric and so criticized art.
André Breton
The "Surrealism Movement" was the descendent of "Dada Art". Surrealism was led by the french doctor André Breton, who fought in the trenches during the WW1 (World War One) and studied the works of Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung which were experts on psychology with the use of subconscious.
Sigmund Freud
Carl Gustav Jung
Differences of expression lead to a division on the surrealism art. The now new types of Surrealism where called:

The Automatism.
The Veristic Surrealism.
Surrealism began in Paris in 1920 and it ended in 1930, it was born as a result of the First World War.
The aim of the movement was an attempt to discover a super-reality by interpreting dream and reality together; two conditions that often contradict one another. In essence, Surrealists love inconsistency, spontaneity, and the randomness of life.
Where and when did it begin?
Two types of Surrealism Art?
Automatism Surrealism
Breton described it as a "Pure psychic automatism".

They used the technique of automatism to explore fear, desire, fantasy, eroticism and symbolism.
For interpreting this art they used the following techniques:

Exquisite Corpse.

Frottage: Rubbing graphite, crayon, or similar media over different surfaces.

Grattage: It was the same technique used in painting.

Decalcomania: Process of smearing paint over a slab of glass and pressing it against paper.

Exquisite Corpse: Surrealist game used in literature that required writers to arrange random words into absurd sentences.
Andreé Masson
Ink on paper.
Located at the "Museum of Modern Art" New York.
Veristic Surrealism
René Magritte
Joan Miró
Surrealism in Modern Life
Les Champs Magnétiques (The Magnetic Fields) was the first literary Surrealistic book written by André Breton and Philippe Soupault.
(It was first published in 1920.)
It is a style of surrealistic art which is designed to portray the dream world in rich detail. One of the more famous veristic surrealists was Salvador Dali. The style is often marked by strangely veristic, meaning realistic, painting which seems to draw the viewer into a fantasy world that has no connection with reality.
It was an opposite approach that stressed the importance of depicting the unconscious as concretely as possible. This movement inspired a wide range of creative drives and contributions to the history of art.
They hoped to find a way to follow the images of the subconscious until the conscience could understand their meaning.

They illustrated those dreams or "language" into their paintings.
André Breton
André Breton was born on February 18, 1896, in Tinchebray, a small town in Normandy, France. He attended medical school, taking a particular interest in the study of mental illness. His education was interrupted by his service in World War One, he worked in the psychiatric wards of military hospitals. He also read the writings of famous psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud, whom he would meet in 1921.
He was interested in the work of Symbolist poets like Arthur Rimbaud and Charles Baudelaire. He liked poetry as much as psychiatry.

In 1916, Breton joined the group of artists associated with the subversive Dada movement in Paris, including Marcel Duchamp and Man Ray.
Breton later shifted into Surrealism.
He was considered the father of Surrealistic literature. He wrote "Les Champs Magnétiques " (The Magnetic Fields) during the year of 1919 with Philippe Soupault, and one year later published.

In 1924 he published "Le Manifeste du Surréalisme" (The Manifesto of Surrealism), in which he introduced all that was related with surrealism.

During 1920-1930 another Surrealist manifesto and other texts about Surrealism were published, including Les Vases Communicants (The Communicating Vessels) and Qu'est-ce que le Surréalisme? (What is Surrealism?).

His most famous of all his works was Nadja, published in 1928.
Years later from the Surrealism Movement, he died in Paris on September 28 of 1966, and was buried in the Cimetière des Batignolles in Paris.
His most famous quotes are:
All my life, my heart has yearned for a thing I cannot name.
I have always been amazed at the way an ordinary observer lends so much more credence and attaches so much more importance to waking events than to those occurring in dreams... Man... is above all the plaything of his memory.
Of all those arts in which the wise excel, Nature's chief masterpiece is writing well.
It is living and ceasing to live that are imaginary solutions. Existence is elsewhere.
No rules exist, and examples are simply life-savers answering the appeals of rules making vain attempts to exist.
Salvador Felipe Jacinto Dalí i Domènech was born on May 11, 1904. He was a prominent Spanish Catalan surrealist painter born in Figueres, Spain.
Dalí was a skilled draftsman, best known for the striking and bizarre images in his surrealist work. His painterly skills are often attributed to the influence of Renaissance masters. His best-known work, The Persistence of Memory, was completed in August 1931. Dalí's expansive artistic hobbies were: film, sculpture, and photography, in collaboration with a range of artists in a variety of media.
The Persistence of Memory (La Persistència de la Memòria) is rigth now in the Museum of Modern Art in New York.

It was done in Canvas.
Dalí was highly imaginative, and also enjoyed indulging in unusual and ambitious behavior.

His eccentric manner and attention-grabbing public actions sometimes drew more attention than his artwork, to the dismay of those who held his work in high esteem, and to the irritation of his critics.
His most famous paintings were:
The Persistence of Memory (1931)
Landscape near Figueras (1910)
Crucifixion (1954)
Geopoliticus Child Watching the Birth of the New Man (1943)
He died on January 23, 1989 with 84 years due to a cardiac arrest in Figueres Spain.
Salvador Dalí
René Magritte was born in 1898, in the province of Hainaut, Lessines (Brussels). He was the eldest son of Léopold Magritte, a tailor and textile merchant, and Régina, who was a milliner before she got married. He began lessons in drawing in 1910.
Note: If you don't know what is a milliner, it is a professional person in the fine art of crafting women hats.
His inspiration for his art?
On 12 March 1912, his mother committed suicide by drowning herself in the River Sambre.

One day she escaped, and was missing for days. Her body was later discovered a mile or so down the nearby river. Magritte was present when her body was retrieved from the water.

When his mother was found, her dress was covering her face, an image that has been suggested as the source of several of Magritte's paintings in 1927–1928 of people with cloth obscuring their faces, including "Les Amants".
During the German occupation of Belgium in World War II he remained in Brussels, which led to a break with Breton. He briefly adopted a colourful, painterly style in 1943–44, an interlude known as his "Renoir Period".

In 1946, renouncing the violence and pessimism of his earlier work, he joined several other Belgian artists in signing the manifesto Surrealism in Full Sunlight.
His most famous paintings were:
The Lovers (1928)
The Great War (1964)
The Pleasure Principle (1937)
The Son of Man (1964)
René Magritte
Joan Miró i Ferrà was born in Barcelona, on April 20, 1893. He was a painter, sculptor, engraver and Spanish ceramist, considered one of the maximum representatives of surrealism.
In a beginning it showed strong influences fauvists, cubists and expressionists, going on to a flat painting with certain air of a beginner’s style, like on one of his paintings “The Farmhouse” (La Masía) in 1920. From his stay in Paris, his work becomes more dream-like, coinciding with the points of the surrealism and joining to this one movement.
Magritte died of pancreatic cancer on 15 August 1967 in his own bed, aged 68, and was buried in Schaerbeek Cemetery, Evere, Brussels.
He got married with Pilar Juncosa in Palma de Mallorca the 12 of October of 1929. They resided in Paris, and the 17 of July of 1931, the couple had his only daughter Dolors.
He died in Palma de Mallorca on December 25, 1983 and he was buried in the Cemetery of Montjuic.
Dona i Ocell (Woman and Bird) was one of his lasts works before dying, he did it with Gardy Artigas and is located at the Joan Miró park in Barcelona.
As you can see, in the modern life there is an obsession where all people like what it is not real. This can be shown on music videos, fashion, films, paintings, etc. In some cases they exaggerated what it is surrealism, but now the surrealism can be stronger because of our new resources for a new manner to interpret this art, but obviously no one will forget the great painters and writers that forged and created this amazing and fascinating art called: “Surrealism”.
One of his big projects was the creation in 1975, of the Foundation Joan Miró located in Barcelona, is a cultural and artistic center to spread a new trend of the contemporary art, being made by a great amount of works donated by the author.
La Masía (1922)
Harlequin’s Carnival (1925)
Joan Miró
Surrealism in Modern Life
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