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Cyberspace and the Danger of a Male Dominated Internet

Presentation @ the Conference "Dangerous Women and Women in Danger" / 8th – 9th March 2013 Queen's University Belfast / online: http://www.qub.ac.uk/schools/SchoolofHistoryandAnthropology/NewsandEvents/Conferences/DangerousWomenandWomeninDanger/

Leonie Maria Tanczer

on 28 September 2013

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Transcript of Cyberspace and the Danger of a Male Dominated Internet

cyberspace and the
danger of a
male dominated
internet Leonie Tanczer, QUB
@leotanczt 1. Sexism and sexist mechanisms
apply online 2. Gender stereotypes apply online 3. Male networks and structures apply online Cyberspace - number of people going online is now close to two billion
(Christodoulides, Michaelidou, & Siamagka, 2012) - OECD: 73,15% of households in the European Union had access to the Internet in 2011 - empowering
(Barak, Boniel-Nissim, & Suler, 2008; Wilding & Ensemble, 1998) - sphere of equality (Gimmler, 2001) But: Is this the case?
Is the internet post-gender? Cyber harassment
(e.g., Lipton, 2010; Citron, 2009) - cyber stalking / cyber harrassment / cyber bullying - approx. 40% of female internet users experience cyber harassment (Barak, 2005) - Sexism (Glick and Fiske, 1997): “hostility toward women (i.e., hostile affect and negative stereotypes) and the endorsement of traditional gender roles (i.e., restricting women’s conduct to fit societal prescriptions and confining women to roles accorded less status and power than those of men).” Feminist movement under attack - 11 per cent decline (drop from 28 to 17 per cent) in women’s use of chat rooms to menacing comments (Meyer & Cukier, 2007) gender-neutral Post-Gender vs.
male dominated technology... - Donna Haraway (1995): new ontology can be achieved through new technology - Stereotypes part of daily life
(Fiske & Neuberg, 1990; Fiske & Taylor, 1991) - Technology converges with images of masculinity & power (Balsamo, 1995; Faulkner, 2001) - Active-Passive Dualism: female -male / offline - online / body - mind / nature - nurture / consumer - producer - more cautions opinion towards technology (Broos, 2005) - computer anxiety & self-efficacy (Durndell & Haag, 2002; McIlroy, Bunting, Tierney, & Gordon, 2001; Todman & Day, 2006) Technology / Cyberspace is male dominated. -“stereotype threat”
(Barker, McDowell, & Kalahar, 2009; Spencer, Steele, & Quinn, 1999; Steele, 1997) - Gruber (1998): women more likely to experience sexism in male environments - Gurer & Camp (2001): females in computer courses harassed - Cohoon, Wu, and Chao (2009): 21 times more likely to depart from doctoral program - Nafus (2012): code authorship in software technology and cyberspace literally... ...MAN-made. Stereotypes 2.0 - Bailenson et al. (2005): stereotypical & sexualized human-like avatar - Gender bending?
(Kelly, Pomerantz, & Currie, 2006) - Stereotypes and computer-mediated communication (CMC) Kucukyilmaz et al. (2008): author identification (99.7% accuracy)
(Atai & Chahkandi, 2012; Christofides, Islam, & Desmarais, 2009; Sierpe, 2005) Sussman & Tyson (2000): male-dominated atmosphere remains intact Waskul ad Douglass (1997): users’s a/s/l - Plakoyiannaki et al. (2008): Stereotypes in online advertisement Masculinist movement How much equality can our country stand? (Bertoia & Drakich, 1993; Crowley, 2006; Kemper, 2012) Male networks / old-boys-network (Ausserhofer, Kittenberger, & Maireder, 2012 Twitter: 2/3 are male Szell & Thurner (2012)
males better connected Aral & Walker (2012)
males more influental Guadagno & Cialdini (2012)
male ability to persuade LADs stories But... - cyberspace CAN have the empowering element cyberfeminists hoped (Scott, 2001; Widing, 1998) sistahspace.com
and also the thousands of women who blog GnomeWomen
Ida Initative
#aufschrei - positive initiatives as: ...so perhaps the utopia post-gender can finally become reality. Thank you. S e x i s m
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