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Stem Cell Research & Therapeutic Cloning

By : Leeya Christine , Nicholas Wong & Shem Gunasekaran
by

Christine Wilson

on 1 October 2012

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Transcript of Stem Cell Research & Therapeutic Cloning

Stem Cell Research
& Therapeutic Cloning Presented By: Leeya Christine, Shem Gunasekaran & Nicholas Wong Stem Cells undifferentiated cells that can develop and become specialized into different cell types of the body
(they are in you as you sit there, present in renewing tisssues) Types of Stem Cells (also known as early stem cells)
obtained from embryos at developmental stage before implantation in the uterus
They are pluripotent cells can develop into more than 220 cell types of the adult body
(Pluripotency is the potential of a cell to develop into more than one type of mature cell) Embryonic Stem Cells: also known as somatic stem cells
a cell that is thought to be an undifferentiated cell, found among differentiated cells in a tissue or organ that can renew itself and can differentiate to yield some or all of the major specialized cell types of the tissue or organ.
Adult stem cells have been identified in many organs and tissues, including brain, bone marrow, blood vessels, skeletal muscle, skin, teeth, heart, gut, liver.
They are also hard to identify and isolate Adult Stem Cells: Typically, there is a very small number of stem cells in each tissue
Once removed from the body, the capacity of the stem cell to divide is limited, making generation of large quantities of stem cells difficult.
(Pluripotency decreses after several divides, hence why embryonic stem cells are more pluripotent than adult stem cells)
Scientists in many laboratories are trying to find better ways to grow large quantities of adult stem cells in and to manipulate them to generate specific cell types so they can be used to treat injury or disease. More Information on Stem Cells Some examples of where adult stem cells can be found Here's a short, fun clip to give you a deeper understanding on the concept of stem cells Stem cell research is learning how to program and manipulate stem cells to become certain cell types, to grow tissues, organs, or even humans! (showing great promise for regenerative medicine)
Stem cells regenerate from the patient’s own somatic cells, making them a genetic match to the patient, making it unlikely that the body will reject the new cells Scientists have found ways to increase the pluripotency of adult stem cells , called induced pluripotent stem cells, which are specialized adult stem cells that have been induced to return to an embryonic stem cell state An embryo would be allowed to grow for perhaps 14 days & It's stem cells would then be extracted and encouraged to grow into a piece of human tissue or a complete human organ for transplant. The end result would not be a human being; it would be a replacement organ, or piece of nerve tissue, or quantity of skin. Therapeutic cloning how does this link to Therapeutic Cloning? History of the Technology As early as the 1960s, researchers began to infuse stem cells from human adult bone marrow into patients to treat such blood diseases as leukemia
As scientists began to discover the potential of stem cells, the ethical debates started because people feared what was possible & they argued that extracting embryonic stem cells was wrong because it is killing life
Because of the uproar of ethical issues, the government was forced to allocate laws prohibiting the practices of this research to a certain extent
In 2002, the House of Representatives ban reproductive cloning & President Bush limits stem cell usage Presently, Stem cell research is being conduted and tested on animals with high success rates
However, ethical debates are more prominent knowing the possibility of the technology
Laws and restrictions for the technology are constantly revisted In the Future Clearly the technology is available for stem cells to be used commonly in science
ETHICS VS. SCIENCE
Society will probably never come to a consensus on whether it is ethically good or bad, so either many restrictions and conditions would be put on the use of stem cells and therapeutic cloning, or the fear of human cloning & the technology not being used properly might shut the door on the promise of stem cell research entirely In Seoul, South Korea, a study suggests that adult stem cells may not only have a positive effect on those suffering from Alzheimer's disease, they can also prevent the disease.
Researchers injected stem cells into mice genetically designed to have the core symptoms and physiology of Alzheimer's disease. Once present, the mice who received cells improved in every relevant way: ability to learn, ability to remember, and neurological signs
(Article published 2012-09-28) Stem cells may prevent and cure Alzheimer's disease. There were around 80,000 stem cell transplants annually the world over and 60 percent of cases were treated successfully. In September 1995, he said, the first bone marrow transplant was performed on a new-born girl in Pakistan and she survived while earlier two of her siblings had died of bone marrow disorders.
Stem cell therapy showed that damaged or mutilated organs could regenerate themselves.
Another undesirable outcome could be cloning, whereby a number of 100 percent identical humans could be produced which could have a very dangerous outcome
Much research was still needed into this new realm of medicine and ethical concerns had to be taken into account
Stem cell surgery could reverse or at least slow the aging process because the aging tissue would be replaced by healthy regenerative adult stem cells.
Article Published 2012-09-14 Potential of stem cell research highlighted Benefits of Therapeutic Cloning Problems with Therapeutic Cloning Stakeholders of Stem Cell Research & Therapeutic Cloning - Scientific Community
- Religious Community and Activist Groups
- General Public
- Policymakers 1) The Scientific Community The scientific community is highly supportive of stem cell research since it has great scientific and medical promise for the understanding and treatment of a wide range of human disease
According to Mukherjee (2008), majority of scientists believe that “the benefits of stem cell research outweigh the costs in terms of embryonic life”. They believe that “embryos are not equivalent to human life since they are incapable of existing outside the womb. At this stage of their development they have no brain, no central nervous system, no pain receptors, no sensory perception and are fully devoid of any kind of consciousness” (Mukherjee, 2008 The scientific community will be effected in either the breakthrough of stem cell research & therapeutic cloning or the stop to the technology entirely.
The stop to the technology due to ethical issues would leave the scientific community wondering about the possibilities and would leave many questions unanswered
Further research into this technology, would expand the jobs and demand in the scientific community, especially if the technology turns to common use 2) Religious Community & Activist Groups The controversy over the use of stem cells is closely linked to deeply religious and philosophic views regarding when human life begins
There are two pivotal ethical and moral arguments that religious and philosophical leaders make:
1) The embryo is “human life” and it is wrong to deliberately kill someone for the benefit of others. They are entitled to all the moral protections of other born human beings such as protection against being killed. (Brock, 2006). Similarly, Pro-life movement members believe that life starts at conception and that the fetus and even frozen embryos have a soul (Nisbet, 2004).
2) Humans should not be able to play 'God'. Therapeutic cloning, while technically not human life is a precursor to human cloning, which is immoral (British-North American Committee, 2004; Brock, 2006).
The Relgious community would be effected by stem cell usage because it would violate their morals, which is why science and ethics probably wont come to a consensus 3) General Public 4) Policymakers DISCUSSION What do you think about the use of this technology?

Which stakeholder do you think is effected the most?

What are the alternatives to this technology? Datta, Anil. Potential of Stem Cell Research Highlighted. September 14th, 2012. http://www.thenews.com.pk/Todays-News-4-131825-Potential-of-stem-cell-research-highlighted
Duval, William. National Institutes of Health. Stem Cell Information. September 15th, 2010. http://stemcells.nih.gov/info/basics/basics4.asp
Gallincano, Ian. Stem Cells: Past-Present-Future. http://www.asgct.org/am10/program/presentations/Session_124_-_1_gallicano.pdf
Lab Product News. Stem Cells may Prevent and Cure Alzheimer's. August 28th, 2012. http://www.labcanada.com/news/stem-cells-may-prevent-and-cure-alzheimers/1001729405/
Mah, Queenie. Stem Cell Research Controversy. August 16th, 2010. http://stemcell.wikidot.com/
Ryerson, McGraw-Hill, Biology 11. 2010. Biblio :)
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