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Metals

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Jessica Copeland

on 5 May 2016

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Transcript of Metals

Properties of Metals
Other properties
There are other characteristics of metals that are true of most metals, but not all.
Groups of Metals on the Periodic Table
Classifying Metals
All elements can be classified by their different properties:
melting point
boiling point
malleability
conductivity
hardness
density
plus many more

Metals have similarities between many of their properties
Physical Properties of Metals
Metals have a set of similar physical properties including:
Luster
Malleability
Ductility
Thermal Conductivity
Electrical Conductivity
Specific Heat
Specific heat is the energy required to raise the temperature of one gram of a substance one degree Kelvin.

Generally, most metals have a low specific heat. This means that it's easy to change the temperatures of metals.
Magnetism
Luster
A material that is shiny and reflective has a high luster.

Metals have a high luster.

We often use the word "metallic" to describe an object that has a high luster.
Malleability
Materials that are malleable can be hammered into flat sheets or rolled into other shapes.

Think of aluminum foil or metal pipes.
Ductility
Materials that are ductile can be pulled out or drawn into long wires.

Copper is both malleable and ductile!
Thermal Conductivity
Most metals are good thermal conductors. This means they are good at transferring heat from one object to another.

This is why pots and pans are made of metal. The quickly transfer heat from the stove top to the food you are cooking!
Electrical Conductivity
Materials that are good conductors of electricity are able to carry electrical currents.

This is why you shouldn't hold onto a metal pole during a lightning storm!
Iron, Cobalt, and Nickel are magnetic - meaning they are attracted to and can be made into magnets.

Other metals are NOT magnetic.
State at Room Temperature
Metals, except for Mercury, are solid at room temperature.
There are multiple groups that consist of metals on the periodic table of elements.

Alkali Metals (Group 1)
Alkaline Earth Metals (Group 2)
Transition Metals (Group 3)
Rare Earth Metals (Lanthanides and Actinides)
Groups of Metals
Groups of Metals on the Periodic Table
There are multiple groups of metals on the periodic table.

Alkali Metals - Group 1
Alkaline Earth Metals - Group 2
Transition Metals - Groups 3-12
Alkali Metals
Group 1
These are the most reactive metals on the periodic table. Because of this, they are never found in elemental form in nature (they are always part of a compound).

Scientists can separate them in the lab. When they are in their pure elemental form, alkali metals are soft and shiny. They have low densities and boiling points.
Potassium is used in fireworks because of it's high reactivity.
Lithium is used in rechargeable batteries.
Sodium is found in table salt.
Alkaline Earth Metals
Group 2
Compared to the alkali metals, these are harder, denser, and have a higher melting point. They are reactive, but not as reactive as group 1.

Like the alkali metals, they are never found in their elemental form in nature, but can be separated in a lab.
Calcium is one of the most common alkaline earth metals. It is essential for bone health.
Magnesium is an important element in chlorophyll.
Magnesium hydroxide is found in Milk of Magnesia - a common laxative.
Transition Metals
Groups 3-12
Transition metals are hard and shiny, and most have high melting points (except for mercury, which is a liquid at room temperature). Most also have high densities. They are very malleable and are good at conducting both heat and electricity.

They are less reactive than elements in groups 1 and 2. For example, iron takes a long time to completely rust.
Iron is often used in construction materials.
Copper is often used in electrical wiring.
Gold is often used in the visors of astronauts' helmets.
Chemical Properties
Reactivity is a chemical property that examines how readily an element combines (reacts) with other substances.

The most common chemical reaction of metals is losing electrons to other atoms. Some metals are very reactive. Others are very slow to react. Some fall in the middle.
Be sure to read about the Lanthanides and Actinides in your books!
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