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Chapter 22 Section 1

Building a German Nation
by

R Kay

on 22 February 2014

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Transcript of Chapter 22 Section 1

Steps Toward Unity
Impact
of Napoleon
Prussian Leadership
Bismarck and German Unity
Master of Realpolitik
Strengthening the Army
Wars With Denmark and Austria
The Franco-Prussian War
The German Empire
1807-1812: Napoleon makes important territorial changes in German-speaking lands
Annexes lands along Rhine River for France
Dissolves Holy Roman Empire and organizes a number of German states into the Rhine Confederation
Napoleon:
encouraged freeing the serfs
made trade easier
abolished laws against Jews
However, some Germans did not support Napoleon or his changes. Freeing their lands from French rule, they demanded a unified German state.
To unite Germany, the peacemakers created the
German Confederation
, a weak alliance headed by Russia.
The
Zollverein
was a Prussian economic union that
dismantled tariff barriers
between many German states.
In a Frankfurt assembly in 1848, liberals demanded German political unity in exchange for the throne of a united Germane state to Frederick William IV of Prussia, but they were rejected.
Otto Von Bismarck
was a master of
Realpolitik
,
realistic policies based on the needs of the state
.
He was made chancellor, or prime minister, by King William I in 1862. Bismarck was finally able to unite the German states under Prussian rule after a decade.
However, Bismarck's loyalty secretly lay with the Hohenzollerns, the ruling dynasty of Prussia. He hoped to bring more power to these people through the unification of Germany.
Bismarck needed money in order to build up an army.
In order to get this money, he gave a "
blood
and
iron
" speech, but the liberal legislature refused to vote funds for the military.
In response, Bismarck obtained money to fund the army from other purposes.
With his army, Bismarck led Prussia into three wars within the next decade, each war increasing Prussian power and uniting Germany.
Bismarck formed an alliance with Austria in 1864.
January 1871
The German nation celebrated the birth of the Second Reich.
Together, Prussia and Austria seized Schleswig and Holstein in Denmark.
Reich
However, Bismarck then made an excuse to attack Austria. The Austro-Prussian War lasted seven weeks, resulting in a Prussian victory. The Prussians
annexed
, or
took control of
, several other north German states.
The Second Reich was thought to be the heir to The Holy Roman Empire.
He dissolved the German Confederation and created a new confederation dominated by Prussia. He allowed Prussia, Austria, and four other southern German states to remain independent to rid any desires of revenge.
Because Napoleon III was worried about Prussia's growing power, a rivalry arose. This led to the Franco-Prussian War of 1870.
Neither country tried to avoid war; each both tried to provoke the other.
Bismarck wrote and released to the press a telegram that reported on a meeting between King William I and the French ambassador. Bismarck's editing of this telegram infuriated Napoleon III, who declared war in response.
The war only lasted a few weeks, as Prussia's superior forces (supported by troops from other German states) destroyed the French soldiers. Prussia had an easy victory.
1862
Prussian Leadership
Funnel of Ideas
Napoleon's ideas and conquests
An economically, socially, and politically equal
Germany
New
Land
+
+
Bismarck delivers his "Blood and Iron" speech. This solidifies his views on his upcoming polocies.
1807
1812
Napoleon makes important territorial changes in German speaking lands. He starts the Rhine Confederation.
1830
Prussia creates an economic union called the Zollverein. This dismantles tarriff barriers between states.
1848
Liberals meeting in the Frankfurt Assembly demand political unity. William IV rejects the throne of a united Germany.
King William I makes Bismarck chancellor of Gemany.
1864
Bismarck's first idea as prime minister is to form an alliance with Austria.
1866
Bismarck makes an excuse to attack Austria. The Austro -Prussian War lasts just seven weeks.
1870
The Franco-Prussian War begins.
1871
The German nation celebrates the birth of the Second Reich.
Timeline of Section 1
=
Constitution
A constitution was drafted by Bismarck. This set up a two house legislature. The Bundesrat was the upper house and they were elected by the rulers of the German states. The Reichstag was the lower house, they were elected by universal male suffrage.
In the early 1800s, Germans lived in many small to medium sized states (as well as in Prussia and the Austrian Hapsburg empire). Napoleon's invasions unleashed new forces in these territories.
Chapter 22 Section 1
World History
Full transcript