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Climate Change and Bangladesh:

Impact and Adaptation.

Atandra Abrar Ahmed

on 22 February 2015

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Transcript of Climate Change and Bangladesh:

Climate Change and Bangladesh:
Impact and Adaptation

1. The primary impact: Earth's water systems thrown off balance

• The cryosphere—the frozen water on Earth—is melting
• Weather of all kinds is getting more extreme
• The oceans are getting hotter, expanding, and becoming more acidic
Contents to be discussed:
Introduction to climate change, and Bangladesh

Brief description of climate change

Impacts of climate change globally

Impacts of climate change on Bangladesh

Adaptive measures taken by Bangladesh

Further measures that can be taken

Recommendations and new technology

What is the evidence?
The concept of climate change is a vital one, with tremendous importance: It studies the past to predict the future.

But, to be acceptable, it needs to be backed with scientific data. To do this, scientists related to the field use a variety of different techniques to properly justify the phenomenon, and predict future consequences.
Climate change is already beginning to transform life on Earth. Around the globe, seasons are shifting, temperatures are climbing and sea levels are rising. Also,
What is climate change?

Presented by:
Roll Name
01 - Atandra Abrar Ahmed
02 - Maliha Binte Mohiuddin
03 - Farzana Maria Turna
49 - Ringkheng Kubi
51 - Md. Al-Muid
Climate change is a change in the statistical distribution of weather patterns when that change lasts for an extended period of time (i.e., decades to millions of years).

It is based on data that spans thousands of years, collected and analyzed using various scientific methods.
The Earth's climate is changing, abnormally fast.
Source: Advancing the Science of Climate Change; National Research Council (2010)
Source: Ibid., page 21, 22.
Some methods scientists use to identify anomalies and changes in climate with respect to time are:

borehole temperature profiles
cores removed from deep accumulations of ice
floral and faunal records
glacial and periglacial processes
stable-isotope and other analyses of sediment layers
records of past sea levels.
temperature measurements and proxies
historical and archaeological evidence
Source: Gloster
Source: NASA Global Climate Change "Climate Change: How do we know?"
Source: Climate Change Consensus
Consensus on Climate Change, in which 97% of experts agreed that climate change is human-induced.
Climate change is a global phenomenon. Before we focus on its impacts on Bangladesh, let's look at how it affects the whole world.
And humans are mostly responsible.
Source: United Nations, Retrieved from Youtube.

Higher Temperatures
Changing Landscapes
Wildlife at Risk
Rising Seas
Increased Risk of Drought, Fire and Floods
Stronger Storms and Increased Storm Damage
More Heat-Related Illness and Disease
Economic Losses

Because there are so many impacts of climate change, scientists have broadly categorized them into three areas:

1. Erratic climate and weather extremes
2. Altered ecosystems and habitats
3. Risks to human health and society

Source: Climate Impacts on Global Issues | Climate Change | US EPA
2. This shift in water patterns then alters natural habitats:

• Coral and shellfish are suffering
• Forests are more prone to deadly infestations
• Our Arctic creatures need ice, but it's vanishing

3. It also places many added burdens on people and society

• Climate change is a major threat to agriculture
• Warmer, polluted air affects our health:
• Infrastructure and transportation are at risk, too
• 2014 was the hottest year on record, NOAA reports
Source: NOAA, State of the Climate
As we have just seen, the impacts of climate change are globally significant.

Now, let us look at how climate change affects
According to National Geographic, Bangladesh ranks first as the nation most vulnerable to the impacts of climate change in the coming decades.

Source: David Braun (October 20, 2010). "Bangladesh, India Most Threatened by Climate Change, Risk Study Finds". National Geographic.
As a picture tells a thousand words, let's look at the following images carefully.
Source: CO2 levels and temperature over time, World-Nuclear.Org
A Summary of Issues we will face:
Bangladesh is set to disappear under the waves:

The International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) predicted that by 2050, Bangladesh is on course to lose 17% of its land and 30% of its food production and as a result poverty will increase.

Source: Planetizen, 2008; The Independent, 2008
Disappearance of Sundarban, the Bengal tiger and birds:

It is believed that the mangrove forests of the Sundarbans, the Bengal tiger and hundreds of bird species may disappear
Source: Daily Star, 2011
Rising salinity threatens Sundarban:

Decreasing flow of water through the rivers from upstream is destroying the ecosystem of Sundarban.
The number of timber producing big trees such as Sundari is decreasing at the proportionate rate at the increase of salinity
People are more vulnerable to diseases:

Climate change will also make people in Bangladesh vulnerable to increased prevalence of diseases, such as cholera, dengue, cardiovascular, respiratory diseases, and malnutrition due to food scarcity and reduction in food production.
In 2030, the estimated risk of diarrhea will be up to 10% higher in some regions than if no climate change occured .
Source: ICDDR,B, 2011
Source: Kafiluddin, 2005
Source: New Age, 2011d
Agriculture sector is the most vulnerable sector to climate change.

Dhaka and Rajshahi are more severely affected by flood than other regions.

Coastal regions i.e. Khulna, Chittagong and Barisal are more affected by cyclone and sea level rise.

Rajshahi is the most vulnerable region of the country towards drought.

Household income in housing sector is more vulnerable to high intensity flood and cyclone hazards

Certain climate change scenarios would be more harmful for agricultural employment of a particular region. Droughts affect Rajshahi’s agricultural employment. Flood is more harmful for agricultural employment in Rajshahi, Dhaka and Sylhet. On the other hand, cyclone and sea level rise would affect agricultural employment of the coastal regions
Source: CEGIS, Dhaka
Source: Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Multi-regional Input-Output Analysis, Sarwar Jahan
A major cause of climate change is the trapping of excess carbon in Earth’s atmosphere.

This trapped carbon pollution heats up, altering the Earth's climate patterns. The largest source of this pollution is the burning of fossil fuels (such as coal and oil) for energy.

This process is known as the Greenhouse Effect, and it leads to global warming, which is perhaps the biggest challenge facing the Earth in the 21st Century.
Climate Change and Global Warming
What can we do?
Climate change is happening, and we do not have the resources or the ability to stop it.

So, we must
Adjustment in natural or human systems in response to actual or expected climate stimuli or their effects, which moderates harm or exploits beneficial opportunities.

Various types of adaptation can be distinguished, including:
anticipatory and reactive adaptation
private and public adaptation
autonomous and planned adaptation.
Source: IPCC, 2001
Source: IPCC
Let's take a look at an integrated approach to adaptation.
adaptive capacity
means incorporating climate change into community-based development and improving the availability of appropriate information and skills, effective institutions, access to technology and opportunities to raise incomes.

Reducing vulnerability to climate change
requires the protection of existing assets (including the ecosystems on which communities depend), improving risk management, increasing assets and broadening the available range of livelihood options.
Let's look at anticipatory (pre-disaster) and reactive (post-disaster) methods of adapting to climate change.
Source: IPCC
The most common approach to adaptation considers how far processes of adaptation can reduce dangerous impacts of climate change and therefore defines the highest acceptable thresholds of greenhouse gas concentrations.

This approach also supports adaptation practices that aim to lessen the impacts of increased atmospheric greenhouse gas concentrations, for example, through engineering and technological measures including:
new seed varieties
water management
early warning systems based on projections of future climate conditions and,
expected severity in events such as storms, droughts, or tidal surges
Source: Klein and Persson, 2008
Bangladesh Adapts
Since the 1970s, the Government of Bangladesh with the support of development partners, has invested in:

• Flood management schemes to raise agricultural productivity in low lying areas
•Flood protection and drainage in urban areas
•Coastal embankment projects to prevent tidal flooding and incursions of saline water
•Cyclone shelters
•Disaster management projects.
•Building cyclone shelters.
•Irrigation schemes to enable dry season crop.
•Agriculture research programs to develop saline, drought and flood adapted high yielding crop varieties.
•Coastal ‘greenbelt’ projects.

Climate change is caused by factors such as:

biotic processes
variations in solar radiation received by Earth
plate tectonics
volcanic eruptions
Certain human activities have also been identified as significant causes of recent climate change, often referred to as "global warming".

Recent human activities have led to increased amounts of climate change, however, and now, it is clear that:
Source: America's Climate Choices: Panel on Advancing the Science of Climate Change; National Research Council, 2010

Source: IPCC
Local-level Adaptation:
The most common forms of private adaptation activities among are:

temporary migration of adult men for day labor
construction of platforms to protect livestock
storage of food and drinking water prior to extreme events.

The preferred public adaptation activities from a local perspective include:

(a) environmental management (mangrove preservation, afforestation, coastal greenbelts);
(b) water resource management (drainage, rainwater harvesting, drinking water provision, and flood control);
(c) Infrastructure (roads, cyclone shelters);
(d) livelihood diversification and social protection for fishers during the cyclone season;
(e) education;
(f) agriculture, including development of salt-tolerant and high-yield varieties and crop insurance;
(g) fisheries, including storm-resistant boats and conflict resolution between shrimp and rice farmers;
Indigenous knowledge and methods are also used in local-level adaptation.

Bangladesh has a strong Action Plan for climate change, which focuses on mitigation and adaptation.
But, a lot investment is needed in this sector in the long run, if the huge requirements of the climate change resilience activities are to be met.
For that, the government of Bangladesh has to work together with the citizens and its development partners.
Through unity, change can be achieved.
Innovative sustainable technology development, practices and processes pertinent to climate change are crucial for LDCs.
Bangladesh is the most climate vulnerable country in the world and has consistently been categorized as a least developed country .

While some climate change adaptation procedures have been taken by Bangladesh, it is more reluctant to embrace the new paradigm of low carbon resilient development, which seeks to bring limiting or reducing emissions, often referred to as climate mitigation, and climate adaptation together in one agenda. We can use this system to reduce the bad impact of carbon .

Let's take a look at the future of climate change mitigation and adaptation.

Carbon capture-
Carbon capture is a technique developed by David Keith; Harvard professor and President of Canadian company Carbon Engineering inc.
CARBON CAPTURE is a technology that can trap and remove carbon dioxide from the atmosphere.
Inside the machine carbon dioxide comes into contact with a CO2 absorbent liquid (sodium hydroxide) and is converted to sodium carbonate.
Further processing removes the carbon dioxide gas and the capture solution is recycled back for further use. Any CO2 emissions produced during processing and running is absorbed and recycled.
Compressed captured carbon dioxide gas can be sold to industries.
The process is intended to remove the carbon generated by 300,000 cars per year. Carbon engineering hopes to have a complete pilot plant built by the end of 2014.

Source: 10 ways technology is fighting climate change - TechRepublic
Source: Climate Change Strategy, 2009
Green transportation-
The transportation sector's emissions have increased at a faster rate than any other energy-using sector over the past decade. A variety of solutions are at hand, including improving efficiency (miles per gallon) in all modes of transport, switching to low-carbon fuels, and reducing vehicle miles traveled through smart growth and more efficient mass transportation systems.

Meat replacements-
The livestock industry is a massive contributor to climate change. It takes more power to make one burger than to fully power seven iPads. Beef alone requires 28 times more land to produce than pork or chicken, 11 times more water and has five times more climate-warming emissions, which estimates to a fifth of total emissions, according to a new paper published by Bard College, the Weizmann Institute of Science, and Yale University.

Smart phones, smart users
Many of the new generation use smartphones. Why not use them in a smart way, to reduce climate change?
Examples of apps that can help you monitor and reduce your carbon footprint and waste:
Source: Ecopreneurist.com, 2014
an app that tracks your carbon footprint by placing a carbon value on on everything you buy, eat, and do, and then shows you how you compare with your neighbors.

tracks your carbon footprint as you travel. Turn on the tracker when you start a new trip, and it will automatically calculate a timeline of your carbon usage. At the end, you can "offset" it by supporting a sustainable project of your choice.
􀂾 First of all, mainstreaming climate change in national, regional and sectoral development planning process.

􀂾 Rajshahi, Khulna, Sylhet and Barisal divisions are agriculture based region. Measures should be taken to promote climate-resilient agricultural system in these

􀂾 Other than agriculture, sectors like industry, construction, trade and transport should be given priority in developing the adaptation measures.

􀂾 Loss of output in Dhaka and Chittagong greatly affects the national output. Services like trade, housing, transport and other service sectors of these two divisions will face a fall in income due to climatic hazards. So a detail plan for disaster risk reduction and a list of climate change adaptation strategies are needed for Dhaka and Chittagong.

􀂾 Housing sector will be damaged severely by extreme events and hence financial assistance is needed in this sector.

􀂾 It is required to expand training on alternative livelihood and climate change adaptation.

􀂾 Loss of income and increased household expenditure due to climate change will jeopardize the life of low income people serving in sectors like agriculture. So, they should be provided with credit facilities from Banks, NGOs and government organizations

􀂾 Promote low cost, flood resistant, elevated housing structure and alternative transport
during flood

􀂾 Facilitate water drainage infrastructure

􀂾 Extension of Cyclone Preparedness Program in Chittagong, Khulna and Barisal

􀂾 Promote cyclone resilient housing practice in coastal areas of Chittagong, Khulna and

􀂾 Excavation and expansion of new drainage channels and abandoned channels can
mitigate the impact of both flood and drought Barisal

􀂾 Embankment repairing and reconstruction work with appropriate design that is capable to protect from climate induced sea level rise and high tidal waves. Tree plantation beside
roads and embankments to protect and save from future disaster

􀂾 Strengthen the Irrigation system in Rajshahi. Installation of deep hand pump well whereappropriate and side by side repair of existing shallow hand pump well
Source: Using ideas from "Impact of Climate Change in Bangladesh: A Multi-regional Input-Output Analysis", Sarwar Jahan.
Climate change is perhaps the greatest calamity that the Earth is faced with right now, and it can't be stopped.

We CAN, however, adapt to the change and build resilience.
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