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A Closer Look into Special Education

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Karen Taylor

on 27 May 2015

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Transcript of A Closer Look into Special Education

1965- The Elementary and Secondary Amendments- expanded access for students with disabilities
This law authorized grants to state institutions and state-operated schools devoted to the education of children with disabilities.
EHA
Education for Handicapped Children Act established that students with disabilities have a right to a free education.
IDEA
1975- The Education for all Handicapped Children Act (EHA) and Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA)is passed.

ESEA
IDEA TODAY
IDEA today ensures that children with disabilities from birth to age 22 receive services if they qualify for them.
Disabilities in the General Ed Classroom
The majority of students you will see "mainstreamed" in the general ed classroom are students with:

learning disabilities
autism
emotional disturbance
other health impairment (ADHD usually)
speech and language impaired
According to the CA Dept. of Ed, special education services were provided to 686,352 individuals, newborn through twenty-two years of age, in 2011–12.
Sources
African American Voices in Congress. Timeline in Education Policy. Found on 1/14/15 at http://www.avoiceonline.org/edpol/timeline.html
Where It Started...
Where We Are Today
A Closer Look into Special Education
Special Ed News. (2009). The History of Special Education in the United States. Found on 1/14/15 at http://www.specialednews.com/the-history-of-special-education-in-the-united-states.htm
IDEA stipulates that....
states must spend public funds on education for
qualifying students with disabilities
guidelines are set for
Free and Appropriate Education
(FAPE)
education must be tailored
to meet the instructional
needs of the child
students must be placed in the LEAST RESTRICTIVE ENVIRONMENT (LRE)
U.S. Department of Education. (2014). IDEA- Building the Legacy: 2004. Found on 1/14/15 at http://idea.ed.gov/
Qualifiers for Services
Students will qualify based off of academics, language skills, trauma, brain development, etc.
A variety of other testing measures are administered by a highly qualified professional, usually the school psychologist along with the special education teacher. The results are then examined to determine if a student qualifies under the following disability:

Intellectual disability/cognitive impairment
traumatic brain injury (TBI)
autism
emotional disturbance (ED)
orthopedic impairment
deafness
hard of hearing
deaf-blindness
speech or language impairment
visual impairment
other health impairment (OHI)
multiple disabilities
specific learning disability
more prevalent in a
moderate/severe or separate class but not always
California Department of Education. (2013). Special Education- CalEd Facts. Found on 1/14/2015 at http://www.cde.ca.gov/sp/se/sr/cefspeced.asp
https://magic.piktochart.com/output/4132578-common-disabilities-handout
A Few Acronyms You Should Know!
PRESENT LEVELS- A student who qualifies for an IEP will be tested or have work samples used to determine a "grade level" or age level equivalent for their skills. These scores along with OTHER factors are used to determine:
ACCOMMODATIONS & MODIFICATIONS
These do not fundamentally change , alter, or lower the standards.

For example, a student with memory problems in the area of calculation would be allowed a times table to assist them in calculating math problems.
Modifications change the information and alter the standards, expectations, etc.

Typically students with modifications will have material taught to them at their instructional level. This is more typical in a Special Day Class or more restrictive environment than in the general ed setting.

With districts mainstreaming all
students, this can be more difficult to do as the teacher but is beneficial when necessary!

SUPPLEMENTARY AIDS
(not aides)
& SERVICES
The IEP team
(insert video)
Wright, Diana Browning (2003). Common Definitions: Adaptations, Accommodations, Modifications. Found on 01/16/15 at http://www.pent.ca.gov/acc/commondefinitions_accom-mod.pdf
Are all members of the IEP team required to attend the IEP meeting?
YES!
Parent & district
can agree
in writing that an IEP team member does not need to attend if the members' area of the curriculum or related services
is not being modified or discussed in the meeting
In addition, even in case of changes, the parent and district may still agree in writing after conferring with the member that the member does not need to attend. The member must submit written input into the development of the IEP to the IEP team before the meeting. Ed Code [34 C.F.R. Secs. 300.321(e)(1) and (2); Cal. Ed. Code Secs. 56341(f) & (g).]
If the parent and district do not agree, the IEP team member must be present at the IEP meeting.
Let's discuss this. What are some situations you have been in or questions you have?
You are a PE teacher and have a swim meet after school and cannot attend the IEP.
What do you do?
Scenario 1
You are a PE teacher and have a swim meet after school and cannot attend the IEP.
What do you do?
Scenario 1
Scenario 2
The IEP is scheduled during the school day and you cannot attend but would like to.
What do you do?
You just got a folder in your mailbox with a list of students and their accommodations. Some of these include, additional time for assignment, etc.
What other information can you request?
Scenario 3
What
Scenario
The school counselor really likes you and so they gave you 8 kids with IEPs in your classroom and no support.
What do you do?
Scenario 4
GOALS
It is the responsibility of the IEP team to write these goals and make them measurable and reasonable to attain in a year.
AREA
OF NEED
academics
language
UNDER IDEA
BASED ON
behaviors
other impairing factors
Why is it important to see the IEP?
The accommodations for Student A state the following:
extended time for assignment, frequent breaks, alternate seating if needed, repeat directions
What does this really mean?
OHI (ADHD)
OHI (TYPE A DIABETES)
SLI- auditory processing
AUTISM
SLD
ED
OHI (visual impairment)
Let's explore the different disabilities and what this could mean...
doesn't understand verbal directions
has difficulty focusing
gets tired or doesn't feel well due to blood sugar
eyes need a break
acts out when perceives task to be too difficult
processing new tasks can be overwhelming
shuts down or acts out when perceives task to be too difficult
Let's examine some typical classroom behaviors:
www.pbisworld.com
BEHAVIOR HELP IS ON THE WAY!
extended time for assignment, frequent breaks, alternate seating if needed, repeat directions
accommodations
Instructional Strategies
classdojo.com
Universal Design for Learning
Offer student choices
throw out the worksheets and bring in the graphic organizers
peer tutors
https://magic.piktochart.com/output/4077573-universal-design-for-learning
http://storybird.com/books/the-special-robot-2/?token=gwqzjfy2a8
build relationships
give choices
be consistent
have 1 on 1 conversations
give students a reason to buy in
have high expectations
How do you minimize behaviors?
Lesson Examples
https://docs.google.com/presentation/d/1dJxMEDLNt-Qh4Ph8UqY5AfGIPkR-ee0UaQIXwj776qk/edit?usp=sharing
Objectives
BRIEFLY Review history of Special Education in the U.S.
Examine the disabilities and behaviors of students with IEPs
Examine the role of the IEP team and General Ed teacher
Discuss IEP scenarios
Look at student work and lesson plan ideas for CCSS and Special Ed students
Materials
BINGO card
Board game note-taking guide
Folder of resources
social interaction
communication
repetitive behavior
= 6 or more symptoms between the 3 categories

No district employee may directly or indirectly use or attempt to use his official authority or influence to intimidate, threaten, coerce, or attempt to intimidate, threaten, or coerce any person, including, but not limited to, a teacher, related services provider, paraprofessional, aide, contractor, or subordinate for the purpose of interfering with that person’s effort to assist a parent or guardian of a special education student to obtain services or accommodations for that student.
[Cal. Ed. Information on IEP Process 4 - 21 Code Sec. 56046(a).] If a teacher or other employee of the district believes an administrator or other employee of the district has violated this prohibition, he can file a complaint with the State Department of Education and ask the Department for an investigation. [Cal. Ed. Code Sec. 56046(b).] See Chapter 6, Information on Due Process/Compliance Procedures.
You have the right to speak up to assist a parent
Special education means “specially-designed instruction...to meet the unique needs” of students with disabilities. One of those unique needs may be a limit on class size. The district may believe that class size is not a critical element in an appropriate program for a student.

However, a district may not categorically refuse to add class size to an IEP as a matter of policy.
Such a policy would not allow the IEP team to develop an IEP based on the unique needs of the student and you may wish to file a compliance complaint if your school district has such a policy. [34 C.F.R. Sec. 300.39; Cal. Ed.
Code Sec. 56031.] See Chapter 6, Information on Due Process/Compliance
Procedures.
CLASS SIZES- SAY WHAT?!
What are the implications of this for your classroom?
The law does not address the attendance of multiple general ed teachers however & how the district decides upon that. Only one general ed teacher needs to attend by law.
The IEP team determines what type of services the student needs from an expert to help meet their goals. The team must also use supplementary aids and supports to make the environment conducive to learning for the student.

Some service providers include:
Education Specialist (RSP or SDC teacher)
Speech Language Pathologist
Counselor
Orthopedic Therapist
Adaptive Physical Education teacher
Social Skills classes, etc.
County agencies
Source: disabilityrights.ca.org
Disability Rights California. (2012). Information on the IEP Process Found on http://www.disabilityrightsca.org/pubs/504001Ch04.pdf
More like 50!!!
5 Things You Should Know
About IEPs
PLACEMENT OF SERVICES
Districts must provide a FULL CONTINUUM of ALTERNATE PLACEMENTS in order to ensure
that students receive services in the least restrictive environment.
1) Regular class placement;
2) Regular class with resource or itinerant instructional services.
3) Regular class with special education related services;
4) Special classes or special schools
5) Nonpublic schools
6) State school for students with "low incidence" disabilities
7_Instruction in settings other than classrooms (homes & hospitals)
[34 C.F.R. Secs. 300.115 & 300.39; Cal. Ed. Code Sec. 56361]
YOU NEED SUPPORT TOO!
WHAT TO DO IF THERE ISN'T A CONTINUUM OF SERVICES-
Contact your local Community Advisory Committee- they have access to local plans, monitoring, etc.
Other things to consider
I HAVE BEEN SPENDING MONEY OUT OF MY OWN BUDGET TO MEET MY STUDENT'S NEEDS...
The district is mandated to pay for ASSISTIVE TECHNOLOGY [34 C.F.R. Sec. 300.5.]
SPECIAL ED TEACHER- I am spending all of my "free time" writing IEPs...
GENERAL ED TEACHER- I show up to IEPs, and the document is already written and I'm just told to sign...
IEPs cannot be PREWRITTEN. You can write a draft, but this prevents other IEP members from giving feedback, which is illegal. [34 C.F.R. Sec. 300.322.] Violates the parents' right to participate.
BACKGROUND KNOWLEDGE
HEART OF THE MATTER
IF WE HAVE TIME...
Look at the Blue
Handout
I am spending money out of my own pocket for my students and it's getting expensive.
Full transcript