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Fats

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Shelby McKenzie

on 20 May 2013

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Transcript of Fats

History Background
Info History and Background Labs Shelby McKenzie
and
Tara Stetler All Fats Are Not
Created Equal Sources General Information Type of Lipids
Lipids are hydrophobic (don't mix with water)
"Oil" refers to fats that are liquid at room temperature
"Fat" refers to fats that are solid at room temperature
Fats are triglicerides
made up of one glycerol and three fatty acids
Can be saturated or unsaturated
Can be cis- or trans- isomer Molecular Structure Trigliceride Structure Saturated vs. Unsaturated Saturated fats do not contain double bonds
saturated with hydrogen
Unsaturated fats have double bonds in fatty acids
not saturated with hydrogen Cis- and Trans- isomers Cis-isomers have the same parts of the chain on the same side of the double bond Trans-isomers have the same parts of the chain on opposite sides of the double bond Saturated Vs. Unsaturated Fat Saturated Fat Stacks up because of single bonds in fatty acids
Collects in veins and arteries
Found in butter, coconut oil, whole milk, meat, peanut butter, margarine, cheese, vegetable oil and fish oil
Has a high melting point
Usually solid at room temperature
Should not make up more than 10% of daily calories Unsaturated Fats Double bonds in fatty acids prevent stacking up and collecting in veins and arteries
Found in avocado, soybean oil, canola oil and olive oil
Has a low melting point
Usually a liquid at room temperature
Should not take up more than 30% of daily calories Cis- and Trans- Fats http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fat
http://www.diffen.com/difference/Saturated_Fats_vs_Unsaturated_Fats
http://www.diffen.com/difference/Cis_Fat_vs_Trans_Fat
http://www.calorieking.com/learnabouts/Why-Do-I-Need-to-Eat-Fat_MTAxMQ.html
http://www.cyberlipid.org/history/history1.htm
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Michel_Eug%C3%A8ne_Chevreul Cis Fats Having same parts of the chain on the same side of the double bond prevents lying flat and building up
Occurs naturally Trans Fats Having same parts of the chain on opposite sides of the double bond creates a flatter molecule that allows for stacking and building up
Does not occur naturally
Result of hydrogenation Why We Need Fat Fats are a highly concentrated form of energy They provide more than twice as much energy as carbohydrates or protein Fat helps transport, store, and absorb fat soluble vitamins Vitamins A, D, E, and K Fat surrounds and protects your organs Heart, liver, kidneys, etc. There are some fatty acids that we need that our bodies don't make Omega-3 and Omega-6 give you healthy hair and skin Conclusion History of Lipids First observations of lipids made
Examinations and extractions of lipids from the brain 1800's Saponification Hydrogenation of fats began
Able to find double bonds in fatty acid chains
Saturated and unsaturated fatty acids could be separated
Term "Lipids" first used to identify fatty acids and their derivatives
Connection between fats and vitamins discovered 1900's 2000's 1700's Michel Eugene Chevreul Studied animal fats and saponification
Discovered solid and liquid parts of fats
Discovered many fatty acids Discoveries of new fatty acids New fatty acids found in
Vegetable oils
Seeds
Bean oil
Caster oil Other Important discoveries Fat recognized as an important nutrient in diets
Synthesis of fats by combining glycerol and three fatty acids
Production of margarine patented
Apparatus made to separate fats from food
Differences discovered in fats from plants and animals
Proposal that cell membranes are made of lipids 1900-1930 1930-1960 Steroids are named as a type of lipids which include sterols, some hormones and cholesterol
Discovery of fatty acids with branched chains
Discovery that diets with lots of unsaturated fats cause less buildup in arteries than diets with lots of saturated fats
Discovery that trans fatty acids are commonly found in fat deposits 1960-2000 Research on fatty acids in specific substances, organisms and organs
Accurate model of the cell membrane proposed
Fluid mosaic model- proteins within the phospholipid bilayer
Discovery that trans-fats are as bad as saturated fats Emphasis placed on eating foods with less fat and without trans fats and saturated fats Safety Gear:
aprons
goggles
close-toed shoes
Precautions:
tie back hair
use flamables in the hood
wash hands afterwards Daily Log Day 1 Day 2 Day 4 Day 5 Day 3 Gathered materials
Degree of Unsaturation in oils lab
Determined degree of unsaturation in oils
Tested extra virgin olive oil, safflower oil, and blended oil (canola and soy bean) Degree of Unsaturation in Oils lab
Two more trials- better results than Day 1 Melting Point Lab
Determined degree of fatty acid saturation
Tested butter, margarine, and mayonnaise "Out of the box" Donut Lab
Removed fat from donut samples
Determined percent fat in different kinds of donuts Results from donut lab
Second trial of donut lab Day 6 Results from second trial of donut lab Degree of Unsaturation in Oils Materials Graduated Cylinder
Three test tubes
Test tube rack
Oils to test
Extra Virgin Olive Oil
Safflower Oil
Blended (Canola & Soybean Oil)
Tincture of Iodine
KI+I2+Ethyl alcohol Procedure Analysis Add two drops of tincture of iodine to each test tube. Swirl the test tubes to disperse iodine. Place test tubes back in rack. Use the graduated cylinder to measure 10ml of olive oil and pour into a test tube. Repeat with each type of oil.
Place test tubes in rack. Let the mixtures stand for at least ten minutes and record the time when there is a color change for each mixture. With tincture of iodine (KI+I2+Ethyl alcohol) Olive Oil 19:00
Safflower Oil 18:00
Blended (canola and soybean) 16:00 With KI only Olive Oil 17:00
Safflower Oil 15:00
Blended 15:00 According to our results, the canola and soybean oil blend is the most unsaturated and olive oil is the least unsaturated. The End Melting Point Lab "Out of the box" Donut Lab Materials Procedure Analysis Hot plate
Large beaker
Three small beakers
Alcohol thermometer
Stand (for thermometer)
"Soft foods" to test
butter
margarine
mayonnaise Measure 5 grams of each soft food sample and place each sample in a beaker Set up a water bath in the large beaker on the hot plate. Use the stand to hold the thermometer in the water. Place one small beakers containing a samples in the water bath and record the temperature at which the sample liquifies completely Butter/Margarine Mayonnaise Butter 35°C
Margarine 27°C
Mayonnaise does not melt Completely melted at: According to our results, mayonnaise should have the most saturated fat, butter has the second most, and margarine has the least saturated fat. According to the nutrition facts on the packaging, mayonnaise has the least amount of saturated fat, so it might have other ingredients which cause it to not melt. Materials 4 test tubes with corks
Test tube rack
4 funnels and stand
Filter paper
4 beakers
Petroleum ether
Donuts
Sugar
Glazed
Custard
Jelly Procedure In a food processor, blend each donut. Measure about 2 grams of each donut sample Place each donut sample in a test tube and add about 4 ml of petroleum ether to each test tube. Mix well. Glazed Sugar Custard with
Chocolate Jelly with
Frosting First trial Second trial Use funnels and filter paper to filter out residue (fat). Rinse with petroleum ether. Allow petroleum ether to evaporate. When petroleum ether has evaporated, weigh leftovers from each donut sample and subtract from original mass to find the mass of the fat. Analysis Glazed Sugar Custard with Chocolate Jelly with Frosting Trial 1 Trial 2 Beginning mass: 2.01g Ending mass: 1.42g Percent fat: 29.3% Beginning mass: 2.00g Ending mass: 1.28g Percent fat: 36% Trial 1 Beginning mass: 2.00g Ending mass: 1.05g Percent fat: 47.5% Trial 2 Beginning mass: 2.01g Ending mass: 1.24g Percent fat: 38.3% Trial 1 Beginning mass: 2.01g Ending mass: 1.26g Percent fat: 37.3% Trial 2 Beginning mass: 2.01g Ending mass: 1.04g Percent fat: 48.3% Trial 1 Beginning mass: 1.99g Ending mass: 1.57g Percent fat: 21.1% Trial 2 Beginning mass: 2.01g Ending mass: 1.41g Percent fat: 29.9% Average % fat Sugar- 42.9%
Custard- 42.8%
Glazed- 32.65%
Jelly-25.5% Future Concerns more than 1/3 of American adults are obese Real World Connections to get rid of 1 lb of body fat you would need to run for 33 miles
the average slim woman (size 10) carries about 100,000 calories on her body
this is enough to fuel the energy to shop for 86 days Results The sugar donut had the highest percentage of fat, but this may have been because the petroleum ether was able to dissolve more fat due to the large surface area. Results Cont'd The results of the second trial may have been more accurate because we stirred the ether into the donuts.
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