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Rhetoric & Composition
Transcript of Rhetoric & Composition
the appeal to
the speaker's appeal
appeals to the
"Pathos" appeals to what the audience knows, values, and believes.
Though we tend to think that we are swayed by Truth, we are actually persuaded by many factors.
Pathos can also involve appeals to the ignorance of an audience, their hatreds, prejudices, and certainly their fears.
The easiest appeal to understand is “logos,” the appeal to the subject. Logos encompasses facts, statistics, and other empirical data.
We call the persuasive qualities of the speaker “ethos.” Often, ethos is synonymous with credibility.
Just because someone is famous does not make him/her an expert. Sometimes passion and confidence are mistaken for credibility.
Ethos may also involve “negative” traits.
“Logos” also includes other qualities of the subject which are not empirical, and may overlap the other appeals.
In order for an argument to be persuasive, it must be geared towards a specific audience.
is a statement that requires clarification to be understood or elaboration to be accepted. Assertion may introduce new ideas (define), make judgements (evaluate), offer interpretations (analyze), or suggest actions (propose).
clarifies or elaborates on the assertion. Evidence may present information, clarify materials, or demonstrate reasoning. The appeals represent the simplest building blocks of support, but more complex arguments use simpler arguments as support.
Composition translates rhetorical argument into a format acceptable to the context.
points towards the next step, whether that is another idea, argument, or a course of action. When an argument is part of a larger argument, application will transition between ideas. In a larger argument, the application is the conclusion, and often opens up (or closes off) the argument.
Nobody likes getting sick.
Sniffles, coughs, stomach aches and fevers are not fun.
But why do we get sick at all?
Context: Explaining the relationship between illness and hygiene...
... in an essay for younger readers.
Minor Argument becomes the introductory paragraph
Nobody likes getting sick. Sniffles, coughs, stomach aches and fevers are not fun. But why do we get sick at all?
All around you everyday are things called germs. Germs are tiny—so small you need a microscope to see them. Many germs are not bad and some can even help you. Some germs are bad and make you sick. When a bad germ gets inside you, your body makes special cells called antibodies to fight the germs. Once your body has enough antibodies, you get well and that germ cannot get you sick again. So, if you want to avoid getting sick, you need to make it harder for bad germs.
Bad germs can get into your body in many ways. If someone is sick and they cough on you, you can breathe in the germs. If you get germs on your hands, they can get on your food when you eat it. If you get a cut, germs can get in through the break in your skin. Knowing how germs get you sick, you can take steps to stay well. If your friend is sick, wait till your friend is better to play. Wash your hands before eating. Ask an adult to clean your cuts. You cannot avoid all germs, but you can stop some germs if you follow these steps.
Supporting paragraph is a smaller definitional argument
Application as transition
Application as conclusion
... in scientific papers and experimental rigor.
... in instructions, visual and public documents.
... in labels, warnings, and specifications.