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Piaget (1972) Intellectual Development
Transcript of Piaget (1972) Intellectual Development
Development References Brainerd, C. J. (1978). Piaget's Theory of Intelligence. New Jersey: Prentice Hall, Inc.
Evans, R. (1973). Jean Piaget: The Man and His Ideas. New York: E. P. Dutton & Co., Inc.
Lavatelli, C. (1973). Piaget's Theory Applied to an Early Childhood Curriculum. Boston: American Science and Engineering, Inc.
Piaget, J. Development and learning. In LAVATTELLY, C. S. e STENDLER, F. Reading in child behavior anddevelopment. New York: Hartcourt Brace Janovich, 1972.
Piaget, J. (1972). To Understand Is To Invent. New York: The Viking Press, Inc.
Sigel, I. and Cocking, R. (1977). Cognitive Development from Childhood to Adolescence: A Constructivist Perspective. NY: Holt, Rinehart and Winston.
Stages of Cognitive Development Children think and reason differently at different stages of their lives. He believed that everyone passed through an invariant sequence of four qualitatively distinct stages
Invariant means that a person cannot skip stages or reorder them. Although every normal child passes through the stages in exactly the same order, there is some variability in the ages at which children attain each stage. Birth - 2 years 2 - 7 years 7-11 years 11+ Sensorimotor. Each stage has major cognitive tasks which should be accomplished. Mastery of Concrete Objects Preoperational. Mastery of Symbols Concrete Operational. Mastery of: Classification Relations Numbers Reason Formal Operational.
(Abstract Thinking) Mastery of Thought How Children Learn Knowledge is not merely transmitted verbally but must be constructed and reconstructed by the learner. "...we discovered that education is not something which the teacher does, but that it is a natural process which develops spontaneously in the human being. It is not acquired by listening to words, but in virtue of experiences in which the child acts on his environment. The teacher's task is not to talk, but to prepare and arrange a series of motives for cultural activity in a special environment made for the child. "
(Dr. Maria Montessori) OBJECTS The child must act on It is this action which provides knowledge of those objects (Sigel, 1977) The mind organizes reality and acts upon it. Readiness Approach Readiness approaches in developmental psychology emphasize that children cannot learn something until maturation gives them certain prerequisites (Brainerd, 1978).
The ability to learn any cognitive content is always related to their stage of intellectual development. Children who are at a certain stage cannot be taught the concepts of a higher stage. Intellectual Growth Assimilation Accomodation Equilibration Incorporation of new events into preexisting cognitive structures. Existing structures change to accommodate to the new information. This dual process, assimilation-accommodation, enables the child to form schema Person striking a balance between himself and the environment, between assimilation and accommodation For Piaget, equilibration is the major factor in explaining why some childfren advance more quickly in the development of logical intelligence than do others (Lavatelli, 40). Implications for Education Learner-centered educational philosophy. DO
FIT Typical Teaching Methods Teacher Lectures Demonstrations Audio-viual Presentations Teaching Machines Programmed
Instruction Active Discovery
Learning Environment Activity is essential. MANIPULATE EXPERIMENT QUESTION SEARCH FOR ANSWERS PP BUT! Does not mean children should be free to do whatever they want. Teachers should be able to assess: current cognitive level strengths weaknesses Children should have the opportunity to: communicate with each other argue debate issues Piaget's ideas on acquisition of knowledge