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Camera Obscura & Pinhole Cameras

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King James

on 9 February 2015

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Transcript of Camera Obscura & Pinhole Cameras

Camera Obscura & Pinhole Cameras
Purpose
Scientific Principles
Both camera obscura and pinhole camera function on same principles.
Original Artistic uses of Camera Obscura
Improved Pinhole Camera - uses Lens and mirror
Conclusion
Concept
Diagram of Camera Obscura
Advantages
Doesn't require advanced technology or advanced materials
Inexpensive
Can be used as a tool for artists
Is portable (pinhole camera)
Allowed for first virtual image of nature to be captured
Created realistic proportional images (especially used for perspective images)
Uses basic principles of light
Disadvantages
Tedious to set up, (Prepare mirror and lenses)
didn't actually capture image unless one traced the reflection
future cameras like Daguerreotypes were capable of fully retaining exposure of image with the use of a film
requires knowledge on how to operate
not convenient (not quick)
History & Essential Figures
Pros & Cons
900s
1500s
1700s
1600s
800s
300s BCE
Ibn al-Haytham (965 - 1039 AD)
First to experiment with light passing trough a pinhole
Used an arrangement of three candles to discover relationship between the original object and the projected image
Considered to be inventor of camera obscura
Leonardo da Vinci (1452-1519)
Johannes Vermeer (1632 - 1675)
famous painter known for extensive detail
said to have used camera obscura to trace images and preserve proportion
one of the first to use camera obscura to its full potential
18th Century
Developments by

Robert Boyle
and
Robert Hooke
, made it more easily portable
These were extensively used by amateur artists while on their travels, but they were also utilized by professionals
Aristotle (322 - 384 BCE)
Understood the optical/light properties that created a pinhole camera
Noted that, "sunlight traveling through small openings between the leaves of a tree, will create circular patches of light on the ground"
First recorded recognition of camera obscura concept
Al-Kindi (801 - 873 AD)
First to demonstrate knowledge of light properties involving small apertures
Understood the concepts behind the the reflected image being rotated 180 degrees
Obscura in Latin: dark chamber
Term first used by the German astronomer Johannes Kepler in 1604
significant in development of modern camera
consists of a box or room with a tiny hole in one side
Light from external environment passes through hole and strikes opposite surface in enclosure
the image is reproduced on the surface , rotated 180 degrees (thus upside-down)
color, scale, and proportion remain constant
first evidence of reproducing a scene in nature
11th century concept
invented in 11th century for experimental reasons
improved upon in 16th century
used to capture live scenes for historical or artistic purposes; used for tracing perspective scenes
newer models had better clarity and were also portable (pinhole camera)
16th century improvements
Light rays reflect off object and travel to pinhole
Pinhole allows for limited light to pass through; smaller the hole, sharper the image; too small, image is blurry and dim due to diffraction
Light rays cross when passing through hole; (converge at focal point)
Image is projected on opposite surface, upside down due to light rays crossing; still in proportion
*Some of these advantages were a result of improvements in the 16th century.
Greek Philosopher
Aristotle
Arabic Philosopher
Al - Kindi
Muslim Philosopher
Ibn al-Haytham
Giambattista della Porta (1535 - 1615)
Italian Scholar
Italian Inventor
published the first clear description of the camera obscura in Codex Atlanticus (1502)
used camera obscura model fro artistic purposes; tracing
able to replicate natural scenes with great accuracy
studied human eye; tried to duplicate it in camera obscura design
Drawings of Human Eye
said to have improved camera obscura
introduced use of convex lens in camera in later editions of his Magia Naturalis (1558-1589)
Compared lens to human eye to understand light principles.
Dutch Painter
One of his paintings
"Officer and Laughing Girl"
Presentation by: Joshua Baijanath, Najee Wilson & Keshav Vedula
Works Cited
"The Camera Obscura in History. Camera Obscura Journal of Contemporary Literature and Photography - A Biannual Literary Review Featuring Fiction and Photography." The Camera Obscura in History. N.p,, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. <http://www.obscurajournal.com/history.php>.

"EasyBib: The Free Automatic Bibliography Composer." EasyBib. Imagine Easy Solutions, LLC, 2001. Web. 31 Jan. 2015. <http://www.easybib.com/>.

"Edinburgh's Camera Obscura and World of Illusions - Great Fun for All the Family." Edinburgh's Camera Obscura and World of Illusions. N.p, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. <http://camera-obscura.co.uk/camera_obscura/camera_history.asp>.

Steadman, Philip. "Vermeer and the Camera Obscura." BBC News. BBC, 17 Feb. 2011. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. <http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/british/empire_seapower/vermeer_camera_01.shtml>.

"Vermeer and the Camera Obscura." , Part One. Essential Vermeer 2.0, 2001. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. <http://www.essentialvermeer.com/camera_obscura/co_one.html#.VNDInSvF-So>.

"What Is a Camera Obscura?" What Is a Camera Obscura? N.p, n.d. Web. 03 Feb. 2015. <http://brightbytes.com/cosite/what.html>.

"YouTube In MP4." Download YouTube Videos in MP4 Format. N.p., n.d. Web. 01 Feb. 2015. <http://youtubeinmp4.com/>.

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Picture Links
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