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Transcript of Ancient Greece
Mountains isolated and protected Greece- limited travel and communication; therefore Greece was never united under one government but did have one language and religion
Fertile plains are between the mountains and the sea
Many seaports along the coast, no place in Greece is more than 50 miles from the sea
Many people used the sea for their living: fishing, trading, even piracy
Mild climate- rainy winters and mild/dry summers- allowed for many outdoor activities, classes, meetings and outdoor theater Minoans •Minoans were sea traders, who reached as far as Egypt and Mesopotamia
•By 2000 BCE Minoan fleets dominated the region in trade, as well as protection from pirates
•Ships guarded Crete against attack; therefore their cities had no walls for protection
•Minoan Civilization peaked in 1600 BCE and collapsed 250 years later
Some theories- most likely invasion from the Mycenaean’s
•Minoans had the classic curled hair, wore jewelry, were fond of dancing and sports, such as boxing.
•Capital- Knossos, Crete
•King Minos •More goddesses than gods in Minoan religion, the chief deity on Crete was the Great Goddess or Earth Mother
Mycenaeans •Indo-Europeans came to the Balkan Peninsula in 2000 BCE
•Kingdoms centered around a royal fortress built on a hilltop; stonewalls circled the fortress, which gave shelter during times of danger
•Nobles lived outside of the walls on estates
•Slaves and tenants worked the lands of the estates Take over by the Dorians led to what has become know as the “dark age”
•Sea trading stopped; poverty rose, writing and other skills were lost Mycenaean Dark Age Thousands fled to Ionia on the west coast of Asia-Minor
•By 750 BCE, the Ionians reintroduced culture, crafts and skills of their homeland, therefore a new Greek civilization emerged, with Mycenaean settlements
•Hellenic, named for the original Greek people, this civilization flourished from 700BCE to 336 BCE Artisans created clothes, tanned leather, made jars for olive oil and wine, bronze weapons and shields
Taxes were collected and records were kept of each person’s wealth
-Taxes were collected in the form of
wheat, livestock, and honey
Mycenaean’s adopted much of Minoan culture; ship building, navigation by the sun, worship of the Earth Mother
By the 1600’s Mycenaean’s conquered the Minoans and controlled the entire Aegean region
1100 BCE- internal fighting destroyed the fortresses and led to invasion and takeover by the Dorians, who came in from the north, with iron weapons Homer & the Greek Epics
Wrote the Iliad and the Odyssey,
set during and after the Trojan War
•Both were used to teach Greek values such as:
-Pride in Greek heritage
-Love of Nature
-Importance of husband/wife relationship
-Loyalty between friends
•Taught to always strive for excellence and meet with dignity what fate has in store Gods & Goddesses •Ancient Greeks thought that the gods explained why people acted as they did
•Believed that gods caused things to happen, seasons, storms, etc.
Posideon- storms in the sea, earthquakes
Olympic Games Greatest of festivals was a held every 4 years, it was an athletic contest held “…For the greater glory of Zeus”
Festival held in the city of Olympia thus these contests became the Olympic Games
Ancient Greece Includes: Southern parts of Europe’s Balkan Peninsula Poems were read and competitions were held. Only free men who spoke Greek could compete.
Competitions included boxing, chariot racing, javelin, discus, running, and wrestling Winners were awarded olive branch wreaths and medals are received fame in their home cities only unmarried women could attend the games
Greeks did not fear their deities like other ancient peoples did
Greeks placed importance on the worth of the individual, therefore had self-respect and approached their deities with dignity, not fear •Their gods were humanized, behaved like humans, married, had children, were jealous of each other, fought with each other, and played tricks Homer, principal figure of ancient Greek literature;
the first European poet
Polis •Greek city-state, city and surrounding area.
•Center of the city was the Acropolis or fortified hill with a temple on top of a local deity.
•Agora was at the bottom of the hill, this is where citizens, those who were allowed to take part in government, met for public affairs. Citizens had rights and responsibilities
-Vote, hold office, own property,
in return they had to serve in
government and protect the city
•Slaves and Foreign born could not be citizens
•Women had no legal rights.