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Horses

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by

Sam Pesot

on 13 November 2014

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Transcript of Horses

Ethical Concerns and Cultural Considerations
There are some
ethical
issues when it comes to domesticating horses because people don't agree with how the animals are confined and unable to roam free. Some groups are also against the use of horses for
labor
on farms.
Horses are mentioned in a variety of mythology including,
Greek
, Old Norse, Chinese, and
Indian
. In ancient times Indians used horses for
sacrifices
, though they also represented the
sun
. In
Buddhism
horses represent energy; showing the energetic pursuit of Buddha's teachings. In Greek mythology horse-like creatures called Pegasus and Hippocampi are often mentioned.
During the Iron Age, and even in part of the Bronze Age horses were worshiped and seen as divine animals that represented a certain deity or even a specific king or warrior.
Any negatives relating to
domesticated
horses are usually because of the high maintenance they require and the
cost
. Though horses can also be
temperamental
, which can make it hard for farmers to get them to work properly on the farm. Horses also work slower than the
machines
that many farmers use today.
There are few
wild
horses anymore, as most horses are domesticated and
confined
to the land that their owners have for them. The land that horses have for
roaming
can vary greatly from farm to farm
Impact on Local Economy
Many people benefit from horses because they are
domesticated
animals. The riders benefit in competitions because they can receive prizes and awards. The horses in war have helped a lot. The men in charge of their horse benefit from them because they help carry supplies that are needed.Farmers get the most benefit because horses help them with the
labor
and plow through fields. Horses can be a
sustainable
business because everyday horses are being bought and sold all around the world for thousands of dollars. Along the
coast
of North Carolina, in
Corolla
on the northern Outer Banks and in
Shackleford Banks
along the Crystal Coast there are many freewild horses.
Vocabulary
Types of Agriculture
Horses are more often used in less developed areas because in most of the intensive agricultural areas horses are replaced with
machines
to do all the labor. Horses are used to help farmers save money for example using the plow and wagon to help carry the heavy loads. Horses are better for the soil and unlike machines can be used in wet weather. Horses usually work in
plantation
farming and
subsistence
farms.
Horses are mainly used for
enjoyment
, for example they can be used for
therapy
, war, and
farming
. Horses used during WWI were essential to carry the heavy guns, machinery, dead bodies and needed supplies. Horses were taken from many local farms into war and many of them killed during battle. The cost of horses is much lower than the machines that are used in the advanced farms.
It is extremely unlikely to see
all horses
in a herd lying down simultaneously. This happens because at least one horse will stand as a
look-out
in order to be able to alert the others of any potential danger.
In the commodity chain horses were mainly used for transportation purposes. They carried the products farmers and traders were selling and also pulled wagons. Though that job has no been taken by modern day transportation systems such as truck, train, plane, and boat.

Domestication, Diffusion & Climatic Consideration
Horses were first domesticated in Middle East/Southwest Asia and were used to pull war chariots and transportation for the Mesopotamian people. People that owned horses were wealthier and well-born. They were found all over the Euroasian plains dating back to 4000BC. Today horses are domesticated all across the world, and are used for a variety of jobs.
The top ten locations where horses are located are
the

United States of America
,
China
, Mexico, Brazil,
Argentina
, Columbia, Mongolia, Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, and the
Russian Federation.
Horses were domesticated for a number of reasons. Often they were used for
meat
,
milk
, and advanced
transportation
for wealthier people. Though as mentioned before they were used heavily for their warfare capabilities. Many
armies
began using horses to form
cavalry
units.

Growth Cycle
The average life span of horses is
20-25 years
, except it is possible for them to live up to 30 years of age. The oldest horse ever recorded had lived up to
62 years
of age.
Aged
: A horse over 9 years old.
Colt
: A male horse under 4 years old.
Dam
: The mother of a horse.
Filly
: A female horse under 4 years old.
Foal
: A baby horse that is still at its mother's side.
Mare
: A female horse over 4 years old.
Sire
: The Father of a horse.
Stallion
: A male horse over 4 years old.
Yearling
: Horse approaching or just turning a year old.
Uses and Commodity
Chain
ho
The winter can be difficult to get through for domesticated horses. Wild horses have insulated fur that helps them get through extreme cold conditions, but when domesticated it is necessary that horses are well prepared ahead of time so they can withstand the cold weather.
http://www.besthorsedrinker.com/284677/2011/11/10/winter-equine-care-tips.html
http://www.ohorse.com/local/north-america/united-states/map/
Horse Population in the US (# of horses per 1000 square miles)
http://www.mythindex.com/greek-mythology/P/Pegasus.html
http://www.farmingwithhorses.com/horse-drawn-farming-cultivators
Horses working on a plantation. In this picture the farmer is using horse drawn farming cultivators in order to ready the soil for planting.
The Pegasus comes from Greek mythology, and was created after Perseus, Son of Poseidon, decapitated Medusa's head. Pegasus sprung from her. The Pegasus was considered one of Poseidon's offspring, and lived in Zeus's palace as immortals.
http://www.mclarenhighperformancehorses.com/training_consultancy.htm
Rider, Joan McLaren, and her horse.
https://perissodactyla.wordpress.com/2013/05/14/horse-nations/
Horses per square kilometer around the world.
Work Cited
Review
http://aldworthapworld.wikispaces.com/C5.+Impact+of+Columbian+Exchange+on+Atlantic+world+(Europe,+African+and+Americas)
Horses were brought to the Americas through the Colombian Exchange. The horses brought over were located first in Central America, but migrated north into North America.
http://www.atlasobscura.com/articles/morbid-monday-split-head-of-the-worlds-oldest-horse
Old Billy was the oldest horse in history, born in 1760 in Woolston, Lancashire and died on November 27, 1822 near Manchester in England.
1) Around when were the first horses dated back to?

2) Horses live between ___-___ years.

3) Horse labor is being replaced with what?

4) Are horses ever used for therapy?

5) What did horses represent to Ancient Indians?

6) The Pegasus is from what mythology?

7) Where are horses located in North Carolina?
"Horse: History and Breeds." Infoplease. Infoplease, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.infoplease.com/encyclopedia/science/horse-history-breeds.html>.
"Horse." Amazing Facts about Horses | OneKind. One Kind, n.d. Web. 09 Nov. 2014. <http://www.onekind.org/be_inspired/animals_a_z/horse/>.
"Running a Successful Horse Business - Top Tools to Make Your Horse Business More Profitable." Running a Successful Horse Business - Top Tools to Make Your Horse Business More Profitable. The Horse Business Site, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.equestrianprofessional.com/public/department130.cfm>.
"Homestead on the Range." Homestead on the Range. Homested on the Range, 16 Sept. 2014. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://homesteadontherange.com/pros-and-cons-of-draft-animals/>.
"IMMORTAL HORSES : Steeds of the Gods ; Greek Mythology ; Pictures : HIPPOI ATHANATOI." IMMORTAL HORSES : Steeds of the Gods ; Greek Mythology ; Pictures : HIPPOI ATHANATOI. Theoi, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.theoi.com/Ther/Hippoi.html>.
"USATODAY.com - Horse-and-plow Farming Makes Comeback in U.S." USATODAY.com - Horse-and-plow Farming Makes Comeback in U.S. USA Today, 12 June 2005. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://usatoday30.usatoday.com/news/nation/2005-06-12-farming-horses_x.htm>.
"Horse Mythology: Chinese & Indian Legends." Horse Mythology: Chinese & Indian Legends. The Ultimate Horse Site, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.ultimatehorsesite.com/info/horsemyths/chineseindianhorsemyths.html>.
"Interesting Horse Facts." Interesting Horse Facts. Angelfire, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.angelfire.com/tx2/horsecorral/facts.html>.
B. "Widespread Origins of Domestic Horse Lineages." (1999). Widespread Origins of Domestic Horse Lineages (n.d.): n. pag. UKY. UKY. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.uky.edu/Ag/Horsemap/Maps/VILA.PDF>.
"Agricultural Hearths." Agricultural Hearths. Roe Buck Classes, n.d. Web. 10 Nov. 2014. <http://www.roebuckclasses.com/101/lectures/prehistory/agorigin/05.htm>.
"Horses: Introduction." PBS. PBS, Nov. 1999. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.pbs.org/wnet/nature/episodes/horses/introduction/3153/>.
"History of Horses during WWI." History. History, n.d. Web. 11 Nov. 2014. <http://www.history.co.uk/shows/the-real-war-horse/articles/history-of-horses-during-wwi>.
Horse shows are necessary for horses working or traveling on hard roads to protect their feet . The hooves of horses need to be trimmed like human finger nails, and so every 4-6 weeks the horseshoes are removed. After the hooves are trimmed the horse is refitted for new horseshoe.
Horses
Samantha Pesot and Noelia Rodriguez
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