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Road To Revolution (American Revolution)
Transcript of Road To Revolution (American Revolution)
Road to Revolution
The French & Indian War
The War Moves West and South
Britain & France competed for wealth & Empire in different parts of the world.
Caused bitter feelings amongst the two countries colonies in the new world.
These feelings were heightened in the 1740's.
The Continental Congress
September 1775- 55 Delegates arrived in Philadelphia. (Only GA. not present.)
Sam Adams and John Adams- Massachusetts.
John Jay- New York.
Patrick Henry, Richard Henry Lee, and George Washington- Virginia.
A Call to Arms
British Fur Traders built a fort at a place called Pickawillany.
French attacked the fort b/c it was located in the Ohio River Valley which the French considered their territory.
The French also began raiding towns in Maine & New York.
New Englanders struck back by taking two French Fortresses.
Native Americans Take Sides-
France & England both recognized that Native Americans could help them win control of North America.
French had the advantage b/c-
They were only interested in the Fur Trade not taking Native American Lands like the British Colonists.
The Iroquois Federation-
Most powerful Native Americans in the East.
Skillfully traded with both nations and maintained power between the two nations.
By the mid 1700's however, they were reluctantly forced into an alliance with the British which upset the balance between England & France in the Great Lakes Region.
American Colonists Take Action-
Virginians had hopes of settling the Ohio River Valley.
B/c of this the Va. Governor, Robert Dinwiddie, sent a young surveyor, George Washington, to survey or explore the region.
Washington was sent to deliver a message to the French that they were trespassing upon land claimed by Great Britain.
Spring 1754 Dinwiddie made Washington a Lt. Colonel.
He was ordered to go back into the Ohio River Valley and construct a fort where the Allegheny and Monongahela Rivers meet the Ohio River.
He arrived with a small force of 150 militiamen to find that the French had already begun construction of Fort Duquesne at this exact site.
Washington withdrew and began construction of Fort Necessity nearby.
Washington then took his much smaller force and attacked Fort Duquesne.
The attack was an absolute failure but Washington was viewed as a hero for having struck the 1st blow against the French.
Washington gains in popularity throughout the colonies & Europe.
Albany Plan of Union
Representatives from several colonies met in 1754 in New York.
Fearing war with France they wanted to prepare & defend themselves.
They adopted Benjamin Franklin's Albany Plan.
Called for a general colonial government for 11 of the colonies.
However, not a single colony voted to approve the union and thus the Albany plan was a failure.
Britain Takes Action
The French & Indian War was a part of a larger struggle.
Struggle for control over world trade and power over the seas.
Many colonists thought that by the mid 1700's the French were well on their way to controlling the continent.
They had well armed forts from the Great Lakes to New Orleans and a network of alliances with the Native Americans.
Early Stages of the War-
The early stages were largely fought by the colonists and their few Native American Allies.
In 1754 Parliament made the decision to intervene.
They appointed General Edward Braddock commander in chief of the British Forces in America.
Mission-Drive French forces from the Ohio Valley region.
He marched to Duquesne w/ 1400 red-coated British soldiers & a smaller force of blue coated colonial militia.
George Washington served as an aide to Braddock during the campaign.
Usage of traditional army tactics- Marching in columns in bright uniforms.- Washington advised against this on the frontier but was ignored.
On July 9, 1754 Braddock and his contingent of troops were ambushed while on the march by French & Native American forces.
The French and Native Americans took cover behind the trees of a forest and poured into the British w/ vicious musket fire.
Braddock was killed and the British lost nearly 1,000 troops.
Britain Declares War on France
The fighting in the colonies sparked a war in Europe known as the 7 years war.
Following an alliance w/ Prussia, England declared war on France in 1756.
Early in the war the French seized British forts and Native Americans raided frontier villages forcing many settlers back to the Atlantic Coast.
Former Secretary of State and Prime Minister of England.
He was a great military organizer.
Who would pay for the war?
Pitt decides that England will, except he runs up an enormous bill.
Pitt wanted to do more than simply clear a path to Western Territories.
He wanted to conquer New France and even French Canada.
He sent troops to North America under the command of Jeffery Amherst & James Wolfe.
1758- British forces recaptured key British Frontier Forts as well captured key French Forts.
This military success kept up well into the year of 1759.
The Fall of New France
The Battle of Quebec
Quebec was the capital of New France.
Located on top of a cliff overlooking the St. Lawrence River.
The British located a weakness in the fortification and exploited it.
They marched through the night up a path & assaulted & defeated the French forces on a field called the Plains of Abraham
Treaty of Paris
The fall of Quebec & General Amherst's capture of Montreal in 1760 led to the end of the French & Indian War.
This treaty forced France to give up their New France Territory to the British as well as Spanish Florida.
Spain received New Orleans & the Louisiana Territory.
This effectively ended French control & power in North America.
Trouble on the Frontier
W/ the end of the French & Indian War the Indians lost their allies.
The British raised their rates on goods to be traded w/ the French & refused to buy Indian Lands from them.
In addition British Settlers continued to push westward.
Pontiac- Chief of the Ottawa Village near Detroit.
He viewed the settlers as a threat & tried to bring Native Americans together.
Spring of 1763 he gathered his forces & captured the British Fort of Detroit.
That Summer Native Americans attacked & killed settlers along the Va. & Pa. Borders.
The War finally came to a close in August of 1765 after the British defeated Pontiac's allies.
Pontiac himself signed a peace treaty & was pardoned.
The Proclamation of 1763
Called for a halt of settlers western expansion.
Established the Appalachian Mtn.s as the Western Boundary.
People that had already bought land and land companies that sold land were especially angered with the British over this.
Speculators or investors in land companies were also greatly angered.
More problems between Colonists & England were soon to follow.
Cause and Effect
British Acts and Colonial Reactions
Colonists were required to transport goods only on British ships
Certain goods (sugar, tobacco, indigo, furs) could only go to England.
Imported goods must be purchased from England or pay taxes in British port if purchased from a foreign nation.
Purpose: To make England a wealthy nation
The Navigation Acts (1650)
-Many colonists ignored these laws.
-Smuggling was prominent.
- Passed Sugar Act and Writs of Assistance
The Navigations Acts (1650)…
Proclamation for 1763
After the French and Indian War
WARS COST MONEY
How about the colonies?
Britain’s Empty Treasury
Prohibited all settlement and fur trapping west of the Appalachian Mountains
Britain passed this law to pacify the Indians and to save them the expense of protecting colonists who settled on the frontier.
The colonists resented the Proclamation. Many defied the Proclamation and moved anyway.
Proclamation of 1763
Legal papers which gave custom officials the right to search any building for any reason.
The writs were an attempt to stop smuggling.
The colonists complained that these writs violated their rights as English subjects.
Writs of Assistance (1767)
Reduced the tax on sugar/molasses but also provided for stricter enforcement of the Navigation Acts by sending suspected smugglers to England for trial with Crown-appointed judges (not jury).
This law was an attempt to stop smuggling by lowering the tax and give the British government the tools to crack down on smugglers.
Sugar Act (1764)
The colonists felt that this Sugar Act took away their rights of trial by jury and taxation with representation as guaranteed to them as English subjects.
Sugar Act (1764)
The Stamp Act was a direct tax on the colonies which placed a tax on almost all printed materials.
It was attempt to raise revenue for Britain.
Stamp Act (1765)
People in Britain were shocked at the uproar in the colonies.
Britain had spent a great deal of $$$ protecting the colonists from the French
British paid 26 TIMES the taxes of the colonists.
Why Were the Colonists So Angry?
Britain taxing the colonies went against the long-established British principle of no taxation without representation (see Magna Carta 1215)
ONLY the colonists or their elected representatives had the right to pass taxes
No colonial representation in Parliament = No British taxes
Colonists were willing to pay taxes passed by colonial legislatures
In response to the Stamp Act the colonists did the following:
- Formed the Sons and Daughters of Liberty
- protested in the streets
- harassed tax collectors
- boycotted trade with England
- non-importation agreements
- Stamp Act Congress and Resolves
Stamp Act Crisis (1765)
The Stamp Act crisis brought a sense of unity to the colonies.
Critic of the law called for delegates from every colony to meet in New York.
The purpose of this “Stamp Act Congress” was to consider action against the hated Stamp Act.
Delegates from nine colonies sent delegates.
A Call for Unity
Drew up petitions, or letters, to King George III and to Parliament.
These petitions rejected the Stamp Act and asserted that Parliament had no right to tax the colonies.
Parliament paid little attention to these petitions.
The Stamp Act Congress
Besides petitions, the colonists took more direct action.
They called for a boycott (to refuse to buy certain goods or services) of British goods
The boycott took its toll, trade fell off by 14%.
British merchants and workers suffered.
Finally, in 1766 Parliament repealed (cancelled) the Stamp Act
The Stamp Act Congress
In reaction to the protests of the Stamp Act the British government repealed the law.
In its place, they passed the Declaratory Act.
Stamp Act (1765)
The Declaratory Act repealed the Stamp Act but also asserted British authority to tax the colonists in “all cases whatsoever”.
The British asserted their authority to tax the colonists whenever they wanted.
The colonists considered this act a victory.
Declaratory Act (1766)
An open letter to the colonists from British merchants following the repeal of the Stamp Act
“We have… got you excused this one time; pray be a good boy for the future, do what your papa and mama bid you… and then all your acquaintances will love you, and praise you, and give you pretty things.”
Placed duties (taxes) on glass, paper, paint, lead, and tea brought into the colonies.
These duties were to be paid in gold or silver only and paid at the port of entry.
Also, suspended the New York legislature.
The Townshend Act was an effort by England’s new Finance Minister to tax the colonies “without offense”.
Townshend Act (1767)
This act challenged the colonists basic notions of taxation without representation and liberty. In response, the colonists renewed their boycotts of British goods.
Five colonists killed in a clash with British troops in 1770 known as “The Boston Massacre”.
The Townshend Act was repealed one month after the Boston Massacre.
Townshend Acts (1767)
Kept the tax on tea and gave the East India Company a monopoly over the American tea trade.
The British kept the tax on tea to show the colonists it still had the right to tax them.
Tea Act (1773)
In response to the Tea Act the colonials:
- organized Committees of
- The Boston Tea Party was staged by the
Sons of Liberty.
The King was furious. Parliament passed four new laws (Intolerable Acts) to punish the colonists.
Tea Act (1773)
These acts were meant to punish Boston for the Boston Tea Party and to isolate Boston from the rest of the colonies.
1. Closed Boston harbor until the colonists paid for all the tea they dumped.
2. Greatly restricted colonial government
3. Allowed British commanders to house troops wherever necessary.
4. Allowed British officials accused of crimes to stand trial in England.
Intolerable Acts (1774)
also called the Coercive Acts
Colonists sent supplies to aid Boston; Boycotted British goods; Established the First Continental Congress
Britain stood firm and tension between Britain and the American colonies increased; the colonists prepared for war; Fighting begins at Lexington and Concord (the shot heard ‘round the world)
Intolerable Acts (1774)
Decisions of Congress
Drafted list of Grievances and called for the repeal of 13 acts of Parliament.
Delegates voted to boycott British goods.
Suffolk Resolves (Suffolk County, Massachusetts.
Forming of Militias.
King James- "Colonies...State of Rebellion"
Thousands of troops in and around Boston.
British General Thomas Gage- Instructed to seize Militia Arms
He learned of a Colonial stockpile at Concord.
Lexington & Concord
700 Hundred British Regulars clashed with 70 Minutemen on the Lexington Commons.
By the time the British made it to Concord, most of the arms and munitions had been removed.
Waiting on the Concord Bridge the Minutemen turned the British back.
Militias harassed the British Regulars all the way back to Boston.
In the end 174 Redcoats were wounded and 73 were dead.
St. Theresa School Ashburn, Va.
On the Eve of the Revolution ?
Only 1/3 of the colonists were in favor of a war for independence [the other third were Loyalists, and the final third were neutral].
Congress couldn’t tax to raise money for the Continental Army.
Poor training [until the arrival of Baron von Steuben.
Exports & Imports: 1768-1783
Break the colonies in half by getting between the No. & the So.
Blockade the ports to prevent the flow of goods and supplies from an ally.
“Divide and Conquer” use the Loyalists.
Attrition [the Brits had a long supply line].
Guerilla tactics [fight an insurgent war you don’t have to win a battle, just wear the British down]
Make an alliance with one of Britain’s enemies.
Phase I: The Northern Campaign [1775-1776]
By late 1777 following the victory at Saratoga Ben Franklin had been in France for at least a year.
W/ his skill and charm he had gained many friends for the U.S.
France had given money and advice secretly.
Following Saratoga, the French began to think that the Americans had a chance to win their war against England.
By February 1778 the French and Americans had worked out a trade agreement and an alliance.
France declared war on England, and sent even more money, equipment, and troops to aid the American Patriots.
Declared war on England in 1779.
Gov. of Louisiana Bernardo de Galvez-
Organized an army.
Fought British troops in Louisiana and Mississippi, Alabama, and Florida.
Howe and the British spent the winter in comfort in Philadelphia.
Washington & the Americans spent the winter at Valley Forge.
Lacked decent food, clothing, shelter, and medicine.
Washington's Challenge- Keeping the army together.
"We had a hard duty to perform...and little or no strength to perform it with."
- Joseph Martin.
"The only alternative I had, was to endure this inconvenience or to go barefoot, as hundreds of my companions had to, till they might be tracked by their blood upon the rough frozen ground."
Desertion was a big problem. (Leaving the army w/out permission)
Some Officers resigned.
The army seemed to be falling apart.
The army persevered and conditions gradually improved.
Spring came with warmer weather and w/ so came new recruits that swelled the ranks of the Continental Army.
Help From Overseas
Marquis de Lafayette (French Noble)
Thaddeus Kosciusko & Casimir Pulaski (Engineer & Calvary Officer)
Baron Friedrich von Steuben (Prussian army officer)
Juan de Miralles (Representative of Spain)
Continental Congress had no power to raise money through taxes.
Congress had to print hundreds of thousands of paper bills in order to pay for the war but the bills quickly lost their value.
The amount of bills in circulation grew more rapidly than the supply silver and gold backing them.
This led to INFLATION:
It took more money and more money to buy the same amount of goods.
Life on the Home Front
Changed the lives of all Americans.
Thousands of men were in the military which led to women having to take over their families.
Other women took over their husbands' businesses and even their own.
The ideals of liberty and freedom led many women to question their role and treatment w/in American Society.
Judith Sargent Murray
Argued that women's minds were as good as men.
Therefore Women should receive as good an education as men.
Abigail Adams also stood up for women's interests.
"I can not say that I think you (are) very generous to the Ladies, for whilst you are proclaiming peace and good will to Men, Emancipating all Nations, you insist upon retaining absolute power over Wives."
The ideals also caused some white Americans to question slavery.
1778- Gov. William Livingston of NJ asked the Legislature to free all enslaved peoples in the state.
From the start African Americans fought for and supported the Revolution in hopes that it would bring an end to slavery.
Treatment of Loyalists
Neighbors shunned them.
Victims of Mob Violence.
Arrested and tried as traitors.
War in the West
Mohawk Chief- Joseph Brant & other Native Americans- Concerned about their lands.
Most sided with the British b/c they seemed like less of a threat to their land than the Americans.
West of the Appalachian Mtns. British and Native Americans raided American Settlements.
Brant led a # of brutal attacks in southwestern New York and northern Pennsylvania.
George Rogers Clark (Lt. Col. Va. Militia)
Seized the British post at Kaskaskia & captured the British town of Vincennes.
Henry Hamilton, the hair buyer, and the British recaptured the town.
Clark led a surprise attack and forced Hamilton and his forces to surrender.
This greatly strengthened the American position in the West.
Glory at Sea
Ongoing blockade that kept Americans and their allies from trading.
2nd Continental Congress- Commissioned 13 Warships
Only 2 made it to sea and success.
Congress authorized 2,000 ships to sail as PRIVATEERS.
Privately owned merchant ships with weapons.
Profitable trade= finding crews easy.
Privateers > American Navy
John Paul Jones
Attacked British Ports on the coast of Great Britain.
He captured the British Warship the Serapis off the coast of England.
"I have not yet begun to fight"
Struggles in the South
Bringing Colonies Back = Not an easy task
Hard hitting offensive in the South
Navy & Support of Loyalists
Win Major Victories
General Henry Clinton
Charles Town, Sc. (Worst American Defeat of the War)
Thousands of prisoners!
General Charles Cornwallis
Loyalist- Not up to the task!
Guerrilla Warfare- (Hit & Run techniques)
Disrupted British Supply Lines and Troop Movements.
Famous guerrilla leader.
Operated out of the eastern swamps of Sc.
Known as the "Swamp Fox"
Help from Spain
Benardo de Galvez-
Thousands of dollars loaned to the Patriots.
Opened New Orleans port to free trade.
Shipped supplies up the Miss. River
Captured- Baton Rouge, Natchez, Mobile, & Pensacola.
Kings Mountain & Cowpens
Nathaniel Greene takes over for Gates.
Guilford Courthouse- British Victory but...
Cornwallis forced to abandon Carolina Campaign & retreat.
Victory at Yorktown
Following Cornwallis' retreat from the Carolinas Washington hoped to trap the British w/ the help of the French.
Washington's hopes & dreams were realized when a French fleet arrived to resupply his army.
He knew Lafayette was keeping the British on the Yorktown Peninsula.
The fleet also carried badly need Patriot supplies and a French Army led by General Comte de Rochambeau.
Rochambeau and Washington joined forces and secretly march South to trap Cornwallis.
The French fleet led by Admiral Francois de Grasse sailed south and defeated the British fleet in the Chesapeake Bay thus controlling it.
This was exactly what Washington needed to end the war.
Cornwallis was trapped.
Washington's plan worked to perfection.
The British were confused and 14,000 American & French troops had trapped Cornwallis's 8,000 British & Hessian troops at Yorktown.
On October 9, 1781 the Americans and French began bombarding the fort at Yorktown.
On October 14 Alexander Hamilton captured several key British defensive positions.
On October 19 Cornwallis realized the hopelessness of his situation & surrendered his troops.
Americans captured nearly 8,000 British Troops.
As the British marched to hand over their weapons a French Band played "Yankee Doodle"
A British band responded with "The World Turned Upside Down" (Children's Tune)
Fighting did not stop after Yorktown.
The British still held Savannah, Charles Town, and New York.
The Patriot Victory at Yorktown convinced the British that the war was too COSTLY to pursue, or continue.
Benjamin Franklin, John Adams, and John Jay represented the United States at the peace talks in Paris.
The American Congress ratified or approved the Treaty in September of 1783.
The Treaty of Paris
Britain agreed to:
Recognize the U.S. as an independent nation.
Promised to withdraw all of their troops.
Give the U.S. the right to fish in the waters off the coast of Canada.
The U.S. agrees to:
Allow British Merchants to collect debts that Americans owed them.
Advise the states to return to loyalists the property that had been taken from them.
Influence of the American Revolution
Revolution that made clear:
Principles of freedom and the rights outlined in the Dec. of Ind.
These ideas influence the French Revolution.
French Rebels fought for- "Liberty, Equality, and Fraternity"
Saint Domingue Revolution
Inspired by American ideals and French Ideals Toussaint-Louverture shook off French Colonial Rule.
Modern day Haiti.
A Call To Arms
April 18, 1775 Dr. Joseph Warren walked the streets of Noston looking for any unusual activity by the British Army.
He noticed a regiment form ranks in the Boston Commons and march out of town.
Warren rushed to alert Paul Revere and William Dawes (Members of the Sons of Liberty)
Following Lexington and Concord the Committees of Correspondence sent out calls for volunteers to join the militias.
Colonial Militia around Boston grew to about 20,000 strong.
Battle of Bunker Hill
June 16, 1775
About 1,200 militiamen under the command of Colonel William Prescott set up fortifications at Bunker Hill and Breed's Hill.
June 17- British assaulted Breed's Hill.
Prescott- "Don't fire until you see the whites of their eyes!"
British charged 3 times until the colonists ran out of ammunition were forced to withdraw.
Bunker Hill was a British victory but at a tremendous cost.
More than a 1,000 dead and wounded.
Trouble in Boston
1768- Protest by the Colonists were making British officials uneasy.
They sent word back to Britain that the colonists were on the brink of rebellion.
Parliament responded by sending troops to Boston.
Many colonists felt as though the British had gone too far...
1st they passed laws that violated colonial rights.
Now they were sending troops to occupy colonial cities.
The Boston Massacre
March 5, 1770, a fight broke out between Bostonians and the soldiers.
Angry townspeople moved towards the customhouse, where British taxes were collected picking up sticks, stones, and clubs.
They began hurling sticks, stones, and anything else they could find at the soldiers guarding the customhouse jeering at them to fire at them.
When one British soldier was struck the nervous soldiers fired into the crowd.
Among the dead was CRISPUS ATTUCKS-
A dockworker, who was part African, part Native American.
Colonists began to call the tragic events the Boston Massacre.
The Word Spreads
Colonial leaders used the killings as PROPAGANDA-
Information made to influence public opinion.
Samuel Adams- Put up posters describing the Boston Massacre as a slaughter of innocent Americans by bloodthirsty redcoats.
Engraving by Paul Revere showed British troops firing into an orderly crowd.
Colonists began to call for stronger boycotts on British goods.
Led Parliament to repeal all of the Townshend Acts except one: The Tea Act.
Moving Towards Independence
Colonial Leaders Emerge
May 10, 1775, the 2nd Continental Congress assembled for the 1st time.
Many delegates were still unprepared to break from Great Britain.
It would take another year for John Adams to ask Thomas Jefferson to write the Declaration of Independence.
Many of the delegates from the 1st Continental Congress came to the 2nd Continental Congress but there were some notable additions including:
Benjamin Franklin (Pennsylvania)
John Hancock (Massachusetts) (President of 2nd Continental Congress)
Thomas Jefferson (Virginia)
The 2nd Continental Congress began to govern the colonies.
It authorized the printing of money and the establishment of a post office with Franklin in charge.
It established committees to communicate with Native Americans and with other countries.
It created the Continental Army.
Upon John Adams's recommendation, the congress unanimously chose George Washington to be the Army's commander.
The Continental Congress sent the King and Parliament a petition or formal request called the Olive Branch Petition:
It assured the King of the Colonists' desire for peace and asked him to protect the colonists' rights.
King George III refused to receive the Olive Branch and prepared for war by hiring more than 30,000 German troops to fight beside British troops.
Colonies Take the Offensive
Congress learned of a British plan to attack New York and so decided to strike first.
Patriot force attacked and captured Montreal but another force led by Benedict Arnold failed to capture Quebec.
Washington began shaping the Colonial Militia in and around Boston into an army.
Washington then bombarded Boston forcing the British troops there under the command of Sir William Howe to withdraw.
Moving Toward Independence
Thomas Paine published a pamphlet called "Common Sense".
In bold language Paine called for complete independence.
"Common Sense" greatly influenced opinion throughout the colonies.
Colonies Declare Independence
Richard Henry Lee proposed a Resolution for Independence.
As the Congress debated the Resolution they chose a committee to draft a Declaration of Independence-
Jefferson was selected to write the declaration.
He drew ideas from English philosopher John Locke in his arguments for freedom.
On July 2, 1776 Congress finally voted on Lee's Resolution for independence. (12 Colonies voted for it.)