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The Scientific Revolution; 16th-17th century
Transcript of The Scientific Revolution; 16th-17th century
Philosophers rejected a geocentric universe, to replace with heliocentric
Philosophers were challenged to use mathematical and empirical data, rather than obserservation
New political theories emerged: absolutism or a government for the people
With decrease of power of the church, there was a decrease in witch hunts and superstitions
Literature reflected human perceptions of reality as well as classic medieval values
Scientific Revolution: Process establishing a new view of the universe
Throughout the 16th and 17th centuries, Europe went through a revolution of thought- largely in science, mathematics, philosophy, and astronomy. Perspective of the universe became scientific-based, and religion lost status to science. The government overpowered the church during this era, and people began to rely more on reason, than faith.
New scientific concepts and methods became more advanced, transforming Europe
Nicolaus Copernicus (1473-1543) Rejects Earth Centered Universe
On the Revolutions of the Heavenly Spheres,
which challenged the Ptolemaic system (the universe was geocentric), to state that the universe was heliocentric, and the earth moved around the sun in a circle
planets move in circular orbits
The Scientific Revolution; 16th-17th century
The New Institutions of Expanding Natural Knowledge:
The most fundamental features of expansion of science was new knowledge about nature and humankind
New knowledge was continuously created, having a powerful impact on society.
But the most advanced thinkers criticized universities, (Hobbes: wrote "Leviathan", which criticized the education he received; Locke also advocated educational reform)
People understood that in order to increase science, they needed to cooperate and share information
Most Scholars in universities still believed in old ways, preserve more traditional outlooks.
(Ancient vs Modern)
Slowly Universities started to accept New Science. With the diffusion of science in universities, came more scientific supporters (but only universities from certain countries, Italian supported- the French didn't)
Some universities started to provide financial and physical support for teaching/ investigating and employed many scientist- including the Newton
They and their supporters created "institutions of sharing" (which allowed info of the new science to be gathered and shared, as well as debated)
They were called "Projectors"- meaning people who sell their ideas to the highest bidder
These campaigns caused the "Enlightenment movement "
Women In The World Of Science Revolution
Women were not allowed to take part in the development of science
Universities only accepted men- except for a few exceptions in Italy
The only women who could have any role in science were noble or artisan women
The most famous woman who was involved in the "New Science" is Margaret Cavendish who wrote "Description of the New world", (also known as the "Blazing World"), which introduced women to the New Science. She also aided Newton with her mathematical skills
Still, even with some exceptions, women had little involvement in science and medicine untill the 20th century
The New Science and Religious Faith
The New Science acted a challenge to Religion
There were three major issues:
1) Certain theories and discoveries didn't agree with Biblical terms
2) Who would decide conflicts- church authorities or philosophers
3) Science seemed to replace spiritual meaning with materialistic ones (even though most philosophers thought they were helping religion by digging deeper into the divine)
The Case Of Galileo
Galileo vs the Roman Catholic Church, is the single most famous conflict between modern science and religion
The conflict of Copericanism and Galileo caused the most difficult movement in history for the Church
In response to protestant emphasis, the council of Trent stated that only the church was allowed to interpret the Bible
Galileo's campaign of Copericanism took place in a time when the church couldn't surrender the interpretation of the Bible in laymen terms and had trouble moving beyond a literal reading of the Bible- protestants accused it as abandoning scripture
Galileo's book "Letter to the Grand Duchess Christina" showed his views on how religion should be used to help support science
1615-16, Galileo, traveled to Rome to discuss his views but the church censored Copernicus's views, due to the disagreement with the literal interpretation of the Bible
The agreement between the church and Galileo was that he could talk about Copericanism, but state it is only a theory
1623, a Florentine acquaintance of Galileo, was elected Pope Urban VII- in which he gave permission to resume talking about Coperican system.
However, the Pope felt Galileo's book favored the older system and was slow-witted, therefore feeling betrayed, the Pope condemned Galileo. Galileo was required to renounce his views and was placed under house arrest for the last 9 years of his life
Blaise Pascal: Reason and Faith
Blaise Pascal, a french mathematician and scientist, surrendered his wealth to reconcile Faith and New Science.
He was aspired to write a work that would prove both dogmatism and skepticism
He believed that Jesuits argued to cause distortion of Christian teaching (to minimize and excuse sinful acts)
Pascal allied with Jansenist, 17th century Catholic opponents of Jesuits.
Pascal believed that religion didn't deal with reason and science; reason itself was too weak to resolve problems dealing with human nature- basically reason should drive those who heeded it to faith in God
He argued with skeptics that it is best to believe in God then to not believe. Because if God is real you'll be saved, and if not then there is nothing lost (his goal was to strengthen religious beliefs)
Dogmatism: The positive assertion of one's opinion in an almost arrogant manner
Skepticism: Doubting the truth of something
Jansenist's: believed in complete faith and knowledge of God's salvation
Tycho Brahe (1546-1601):
Concluded that the moon and the sun revolved around Earth (geocentric), but all the other planets revolved around the sun (heliocentric)
Johannes Kepler (1571-1630):
Based of the work of Brahe, determined that the universe had to be heliocentric, and that planets moved in elliptical orbits- not circular
Galileo Galilei (1564-1642):
Was the first to use a telescope in 1609
Based his observations on mathematics as he found strong evidence that nature displayed mathematical regularity
the world was increasingly described in rational, mathematical terms
Isaac Newton (1642-1727)- Laws of Gravitation
established the basics for physics
planets move through mutual attraction- gravity
based research off of empiricism (personal observation)
Francis Bacon (1561-1626)
Father of Empiricism
Urged philosophers or scientists not to rely on previously found knowledge, but to use the method of empiricism to draw upon their own conclusions
Rene Descartes (1596-1650)
Developed scientific method of
Was not based on observation
Separated existing things into mind and body; this eliminated the spiritual realm from scientific speculations
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679):
Believed civilization required an Absolute Government
Theories most impacted political thought
Humans were brutish by nature, "self centered creatures who lack a master", and all human motivations egotistical to increase pleasure and decrease pain
Hobbes dark view of human nature is thought to be influenced by his witness of the English civil war
1651, published Leviathan, which justified having a strong central authority
Only a sovereign commonwealth between the ruler and the ruled, along with a social contract could allow humans to meet needs and avoid state of nature
John Locke (1632-1704):
Strongly endorsed moderate liberty and toleration; most influential philosophical and political thinker of 17th c.
Set the foundation for liberal political philosophy
First & Second Treatise of Government, rejected theory of absolute government
The human natural state is of reason and goodwill: a person;s mind at birth a blank tablet
People have the right of liberty and property
Conflict requires political authority/guidance, but not a sovereign authority
A social contract needed to secure individual rights, but with a limited government
The expansion of European economy and drive toward empires helped the growth of science. People who had ideas in improving production, navigation or military might seek support from associated societies.
Both government and private business helped with scientific knowledge (many people involved campaigned for modern achievement ,religion toleration and political liberty.
Those from the working class, still had a large impact on advancements in science:
1) the Craftsman: people who can manufacture scientific instruments
2) the Sailors: travels have gained information on plants and animals they've seen
3) the Worker: practical knowledge of problems in the countryside
They tried to separate science from religious and political views, however the different classes in society created a barricade between the literate and non-literate
Nature as Mechanism
World explained in mechanical terms, such as clock and it's gears.
This turned thinking away from the divine, or religious
This "New Science" could strengthen the monarchy
1543 On the Revolutions of Heavenly Spheres Copernicus
1605 The Advancement of Learning Bacon
1609 The New Astronomy Kepler
1610 The Starry Messenger Galileo
1620 Novum Organum Bacon
1632 Dialogue on the Two Chief World Systems Galileo
1637 Discourse on Method Descartes
1651 Leviathan Hobbes
1687 Principia Mathematica Newton
1689 Letter Concerning Toleration Locke
1690 An Essay Concerning Human Understanding Locke
1690 Treatises of Government
Major Works of Scientific Revolution:
The English Approach to Science and Religion
Francis Bacon created a key framework for recoiling science and religion- aloowing a new physics and astronomy
His argument: there are two divine revelation: the Bible and nature- for both share the same author, which means that they must be compatible.
He believed that Natural theology based on a scientific understanding of the natural order would thus support theology from scripture.
Religious thought associated with such deducing of religious conclusion from nature become known as Physico-theology.
The scientific revolution provided the great model for the desirability of change and of criticism of inherited views.
Natural philosophy and practical achievements had become associated in the public mind with consumption and the market economy.
Scientific advance and economic enterprise came to be interpreted in the public mind was part of Gods plan.
Human beings were meant to improve the world, this outlook provided religious reason to be involved in the economy- help improve it.
Even with new ideas from science and philosophy, traditional beliefs and fears long retained their hold on Western culture.
Until the end of the 17th century, almost all Europeans in one way or another believed in the power of demons- preoccupied by sin, death and the evil.
Witch-Hunts and Panic
Between 1400 and 1700, it's estimated that courts sentenced 70,000-100,000 people to death for harmful magic (maleficium) and witchcraft.
In addition to harming people, witches attended Sabbats (mass meetings) in which the were believed to fly. As well as being cannibalistic- eating small christian children.
Most ritual acts were sexual in nature- that denied or prevented christian beliefs.
Why were there so many witch panics-disruptions created by religious division and warfare were major factors (peak of religious wars were also those of the witch hunts)
Many people would argue that the panics came from the fact spiritual defense.
Within villages "Cunning" or "gifted" people were feared and respected due to the fact people believed the magic helped against natural disaster and disability
Witch belief may also been a way for many people to discard the Christian society attempts.
Influence of the clergy
Had ordinary people not believed in "gifted" people and how the could help or harm others , the hunts may have never occurred.
By the late 13th century, the church claimed that its "magic" was the true and only "magic".
Who Were the Witches?
Roughly about 80% of victims were women more specifically women who were single and over 40.
3 types of women who were mainly targeted were: -widows: b/c they relied on help of others, unhappy and would lash out a lot; -Midwives: were very unpopular when a new born or mother died during the birth; - lastly women who were healers and herbalist: b/c their worked gave them spiritual and moral authority.
Those types of women were usually first in line to be burned at the stake
What ended these hunts?
Science tend to prove that words couldn't cause any physical harm, so any curse couldn't cause any harm.
Advance in medicine
And the simple fact that the hunts became out of hand.
Art historians use the term Baroque to denote the style associated with 17th century painting, sculpting and architecture.
The art was more naturalistic then an idealized image.-this helped increase interest in natural science.
These painters became more interested in creating a contrast between light and dark- creating emotion and drama within the image.
These artist served both religion and secular ends. (with images of Christ and simple nature art).