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Transcript of MOTIVATION theories
OPPONENT PROCESS AT EVERY MOMENT WE ACT IN PURSUIT OF WHAT WE MOST WANT OR NEED AT THAT MOMENT. THEORY INSTINCT-a descriptive term for a complex,
unlearned adaptive response, an unlearned pattern of reflexes throughout a species - an individual acts the way he does because of his instinct. CRITICISM: INSTINCT Theory Animals display automatic and innate behavior patterns called fixed action pattern to environmental stimuli. William James listed 37 instincts. Jealousy Sympathy Attachment People are motivated to behave in certain ways because they are evolutionarily programmed to do so. CRITICISM: Instinct Theory merely
describe and label behaviors rather
than explaining them. THEORY THEORY THEORY THEORY DRIVE- any physiological condition which impels the organism to become active
Primary Drives- unlearned drive such as hunger and thirst.
Secondary Drives- learned drive such as ambition. PSYCHO-ANALYTIC/ DRIVE THEORY The idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state (a drive)that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. CRITICISM:Can't explain why people
often engage in behaviors that serve
to increase tension and physiological
arousal. External rewards as MOTIVATORS INCENTIVE THEORY Behavior is motivated by the "pull" of external goals,such as rewards, money and recognition. Based from well-established learning principles,such as reinforcements, and the work learning theorists like Pavlov, Watson, Skinner and Tolman. CRITICISM: Fails to explain situation in which an individual works despite of less or no incentive. -based on the idea that every individual performs better at different levels of arousal and each individual seeks out this optimum level. AROUSAL THEORY Individuals are motivated to maintain their optimal levels of arousal in order to be comfortable in their settings and be at harmony and balance with their bodies and minds. Individuals take certain actions to either increase or decrease their levels of arousal. For example, if an individual’s arousal level gets too low they might go out and do something with friends or go on a hike. If an individual’s level is too high they might meditate or find other ways to relax. -a psychological model proposed by Richard Solomon in 1980 to account for addictive behavior. SOLOMON's OPPONENT PROCESS THEORY Views emotions as pairs of opposites (for example, fear-relief, pleasure-pain). Theorist Richard Solomon argues that many acquired motives (learned motives) arise from the interplay of two opposing processes in the brain. States that when one emotion is experienced, the other is suppressed. He analyzed the emotions present when skydivers jump from planes.
Beginners experience extreme fear as they jump, which is replaced by great relief when they land.
With repeated jumps, the fear decreases and the post-jump pleasure increases. This process may explain a variety of thrill-seeking behaviors. EXAMPLE: It has also been proposed as a model of drug addiction. The drug initially produces pleasurable feelings, but then a negative emotional experience occurs.
Eventually, the drug user takes drugs not for their pleasurable effects, but to avoid withdrawal symptoms.
Over time, however, as the levels of pleasure from using the drug decrease, the levels of withdrawal symptoms from not taking the drug increase, thus providing motivation to use the drug despite a lack of pleasure from it.
The opponent-process theory is an attempt to link emotional states with motivation.