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# Spacetime

The basics and connections (8th grade project)
by

## Jack Muriano

on 17 October 2015

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#### Transcript of Spacetime

Space-Time
What is Space-time?
Space-time is the four basic dimensions (length, width, height, and time) acting as one.
Einstein's Theories of Relativity
The Birth of Space-time
General Relativity
Special Relativity
During his "miracle year" in 1905 Einstien created his theories of...
The more mass any object has, and the closer it is to another, the more they are attracted to each other.
The gravity we experience is everything around us being attracted to Earth's great mass, but can be simulated by an acceleration equal to terminal velocity. Without a landmark to relate to, it is impossible to differentiate between rest in gravity and constant acceleration.
In Earth's case, the acceleration needed to simulate gravity is 9.8meters per second .
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Very massive objects distort space-time.
Smaller objects orbiting the large ones are really just following a line inside the curved space.
Events are defined by where and when they occured; their location in space-time.
given the speed of light is constant:
Time also flows based on the observer, in something called time dialation.
E=MC
(Energy=mass x the speed of light
Speed of light travel?
"We cannot determine whether two events that took place at different times occured in the same position in space." -Stephen Hawking
We cannot travel faster than the speed of light. Newton's laws say as speed increases, so does mass, and as mass increase, so does the energy required to accelerate. Therefore, infinite speed requires infinite energy, which isn't possible.
It's like gravity: it changes based on it's proximity to a large object and in reference to speed; the nearer to a large mass, the faster time flows in that area, and the faster an object is moving, the slower time moves for it.
Time travel?
Einstein's twin theory says it could happen, though only what we'd call forwards. In his example, one twin stays on Earth, while the other travels at or near the speed of light, away into empty space, stops, then turns around and comes back. Due to the speed and not being near any large masses, time dialation causes the twin in the ship to age much less than one on Earth. While years have passes for twin one, only months have for twin two.
proving that space-time is...
On the 24th of May, 1919, a British atronomer named Arthur Eddington traveled to Brazil to test Einstien's prediction that due to general relitivity, the sun would measuably bend another star's light. The only way to test this would be during an eclipse, when a star can be seen near the sun. Arthur measured the position of a star appearing next to the sun, then returned six months later and measured its position again. It was off by exactly the amount Einstein had calculated.
Light too follows the shortest possible path between
the smallest unit known; geodesics.
Wormholes
Though only a theory, wormholes are an interesting possibility. The idea is that space-time warps so much at two points that the depressions connect, creating a tunnel-like shortcut in which time flows slower and less space is traveled between the two points.
Black holes
Black holes are an extreme "dent" in space-time, a so-called "rip" created when extremely large stars supernova, then violently collapse. They have such a strong gravity pull that even light is pulled in, making them invisible to the eye and earning their name. When stars orbit around seemingly nothing, there's probably a black hole. These "rips" have a point called the event horizon, the so-called point of no return, where some believe time may actually stop.
CONNECTIONS
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The Eclipse Proof
In 1964, a radio atronomer named Irwin Shapiro helped further prove General Relativity. Irwin realized that radio waves passing through a depression in space-time would experience a slight delay. The Viking probes on Mars proved this; when Mars and Earth were on opposite sides of the sun, there was a delay, even though it only calculated to microseconds.
GP-B
In the 1960's, NASA began building a probe, later to become GP-B (gravity probe B). Launched April 20th, 2004, GP-b used four of the most perfect gyroscopes ever made to prove not only does Earth create a dimple in space-time, but that it's rotation twists space-time too. This was measured by fine intruments tracking the drift in the gyroscopes over time. Final results, announced May 4th, 2011, both recomfirmed Eienstien's theory and comfirmed the new theory true.
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Time D

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A man on a moving train bounces a ball. To him, it appears to move straight down to the floor, then bounce straight up again. However, to an observer next to the moving train, the ball appers to move in an arc down, then up, moving not just vertically, but horizontally too.
Bobby jumps up in the air, lands, then jumps again a second later. Did the child land in the same spot? No, he did not. While the Bobby jumped, the Earth rotated and revolved, our solar system and our galaxy spread out from others, and the universe expanded. Whether or not that is the end, the child is thousands of miles away from his first landing, though if you asked his nearby mother, he never took a step.
Space is all fine and dandy, but without time, nothing would ever happen. Every movement, from the smallest level to the largest, requires the fourth dimension to occur.
All movement is relative, depending on the location of the observer.
Example 2
Because:
Example 1
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Likewise, an object falling at terminal velocity experiences zero gravity.
Citations
NASA.gov
http://www.astronomynotes.com/relativity/s3.htm (Through NASA.gov)