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Transcript of Latin America
Latin American nations had the "Threat of Revolution" after WWII.
Military guerrilla fighters bombed, kidnapped and assassinated people from military regimes (groups that had power).
Revival of Democracy: By the late 1980's Argentina, Brazil, and Chile held elections to try and end unrest within their nations.
Import Substitution- Latin American governments wanted to develop local industry to reduce dependence on imported goods.
Agribusiness- Giant commercial farms owned by multinational corporations, caused deforestation.
Latin America was ruled by monarchs and after WWII the colonies were released, because the colonies had no training in how to run a government military regimes took power in some cases the nations used an Aristocracy, a government made up of wealthy land owners(Ropp). Cuba Fidel Castro He developed a communist dictatorship.
In 1959 Castro assumed power, and set up a provisional government.
He then held trials for members of Batista's party who held power before Castro (Suchlicki).
Castro said that he would transition from communism to democracy and hold free elections, but he never did (Suchlicki).
This shows how Cuba was in turmoil. Bay of Pigs The American CIA trained 1,400 Cuban refugees, and landed them on Cuba on April 17, 1961 ("On This Day 3).
The invasion failed embarrassingly. The Cubans were able to defeat the US backed troops in less then 72 hours ("On This Day" 3).
Increased Cold War tensions Cuban Missile Crisis A showdown between the United States and the Soviet Union. The Soviet Union tried to put nuclear missiles on Cuba, the Soviet Union backed down and removed the missiles from Cuba. This is considered the closest point to nuclear war.
By 1962 the US had knowledge that the Soviets were installing nuclear missiles on Cuba, just 90 miles from the US (On This Day 1).
Kennedy responded by forming a committee that decided to form a naval blockade around Cuba to prevent more missiles from arriving. Kennedy also said that the Soviets were to withdrawal the weapons or the US would attack Cuba, the Soviets did remove them (On This Day 1).
This shows how well the United States surveillance was to find this threat. The United States has a trade embargo on Cuba.This means a ban on trade. An example includes Cuban cigars are no longer imported into the United States.
Eisenhower placed an embargo on Cuba in 1961, along with ceasing diplomatic relations with Cuba. Later Kennedy put a ban on all trade with Cuba, he even went to make travel to Cuba illegal to further weaken the economic status off Cuba (On This Day 2).
The US government attempted to weaken Cuba by not going to war, but instead by not trading with Cuba, a main source of income for the nation. Embargo Background: Mexico Ejidos Ejidos are peasant cooperatives, they were created when Lazaro Cardenas created a reform program. Maquiladoras Assembly plants owned by multinational corporations. This shows how the Mexican economy was controlled by foreign nations NAFTA NAFTA stands for the North Atlantic Free Trade Agreement.
NAFTA took effect in January of 1994 (Camp).
It attempted to set up free trade in all of North America. This free trade hurt Mexico's economy by loading it full of goods.
The Zapatista Army of National Liberation began to take control in southern Mexico after the signing of NAFTA, which they believed would increase an already high poverty, and lead to a loss of land (Camp) Nicaragua Sandinistas The Sandinistas was the broad alliance of revolutionaries and reformers that took power in Nicaragua.
The Sandinistas took the name from Augusto Cesar Sandino. He led the Nicaraguan opposition to the the United States occupation of Nicaragua.
They received financial support from Cuba, once they gained power they used a command economy like Cuba and the Soviet Union did.
The Sandinistas nationalized properties owned by elite and American citizens.
This shows that Nicaragua was showing communist ideas, and had backing from the Soviets. Guatemala Civil War Military and land owners fought against guerillas, killed students, critics, labor leaders, and many natives. A total of 30,000 people died. A civilian government took power, and the United States president pressured the Guatemalan government to recognize the people of Guatemala.
The civil war lasted from 1954 to 1999, 200,000 people were killed, and 86% of them were Mayan (Miller)
The civil war was fought by the government, and leftists who did not like the way government was, most of the antigovernmental forces included natives who had little political power (Euraque) El Salvador Civil War Right Wing death squads slaughtered church workers, students, and labor leaders.
The leftest United States pressured reforms, and provided weapons to the military to battle the rebels.
Once peace was brokered by the UN the economy was ravaged in El Salvador.
The civil war lasted from the 1980's to 1992 (Garcia) Haiti Papa Doc Baby Doc Democracy He was formerly known as Dr. Francois, or Francois Duvalier. He ruled Haiti from 1957-1971 with brute force and terror.
He received a high level education, and was involved in national, and ethnic movements.
While in power he used the army to provide support, and religion to gain followers. He also used a secret police known as the Tontons Macoutes (Duvalier 1).
He took power for 15 years, he called himself a president for life, and considered himself chosen by god (Duvalier 1)
He did not help the economy like he thought he would. There were thousands of deaths due to famine, increased poverty (Duvalier 1)
Francois Duvalier weakened Haiti considerably, and was backed by the Soviet Union. Papa Doc's son, called Jean-Claude Duvalier, or Baby Doc, ruled from 1971-1986, and continued with his fathers strict ways.
Jean-Clause Duvalier was born in 1951, and was given a public education, and then went to the national university (Duvalier 2)
He supported anti-communism, this made Haiti an ally to America, and American president Jimmy Carter provided financial assistance until Haitians fled to Florida (Duvalier 2)
Haiti fell into chaos!!! Jean-Clause Duvalier fled to France after stealing 200 million dollars, but had to give it back to Haiti, he now lives in poverty (Duvalier 2) In 1990 free elections were held. The democracy in Haiti still exists, but it is very fragile.
As more time passes, the Democracy should strengthen itself. Argentina Juan Peron Eva Peron In 1946 Juan Peron was elected president. He soon became an authoritarian leader who stopped opposition, and produced many reforms.
Juan Depended on his wife a lot, which explains why he was overthrown in 1955 by a military group after she died in 1952.
While he was in power he industrialized the nation and built up the military (Alexander 1)
Juan had support from the military, and the labor class (Alexander 1) Juan Peron's wife Eva Peron helped greatly to reform Argentina.
She developed many social reforms, created her own charities, and blackmailed people and businesses to donate money to her charities (Alexander 2)
Once Eva died, Juan lost support of the people (Alexander 2)
Eva had no power within the government, but created change by relating with the people of Argentina. Democracy In 1983, a newly elected government restored democracy in Argentina.
Military leaders still had power after Juan was overthrown, until Argentina was defeated in the Falkland Islands War of 1982 by the British. After this Argentina became a democracy (Argentina) Brazil Independence Dictators Economic Miracle Brazil achieved independence peacefully, but was in turmoil for many years. Dictators took power and attempted to reform the nation.
The dictator Vargas at first reformed the economy, but gradually reduced personal freedoms. (Hanley)
In order to develop Brazil's interior, future leaders moved the capital to Brasilia in 1960. (Hanley)
By 1985, democracy returned to Brazil. Brazil had the following things which made it an economic miracle: a lot of Territory, a large Population, lots of Wealth, Financial Resources, Technology, Military Goods, and Minerals. The above created such a strong economy there was no way for it to not be a strong economy.
Brazil has been a major producer of sugarcane, which makes sugar, and more recently ethanol. This allowed Brazil to accumulate a lot of wealth and power itself. This shows how Brazil has become more of an independent nation. Relations In 1960 the Cubans and Soviets created a trade agreement (Suchlicki).
This shows the relations with Russia, and communism reinforcing the idea that Castro will not transition to a democracy Cuban-Soviet Relations Cuban-US Relations Castro confiscated the three largest US oil refineries after the US refused to refine Soviet oil, this and other factors caused the US to break relations with Cuba (Suchlicki).
In response to Castro nationalizing oil refineries is Cuba the United States decreased trade, and put an embargo on Cuba (On This Day 2)
Communist Cuba and Democratic US did not get along because of policy differences, and a long period of distaste for each other. Once Cuba began to show signs of becoming communist the United States decreased relations until January of 1961 when Eisenhower broke all diplomatic relations with Cuba, just before his term ended. (On This Day 2) (On This Day 1) (On This Day 3) Economy Mexico's economy boomed from the 1940's to the 1960's. Mexico had new factories that created new products for the people in the United States. Mexico's agriculture exports increased along with tourism (Camp).
Mexico increased control over foreign owned businesses (Camp).
Mexico wanted to become stronger, and not be used by America and other nations. THEME: The United States tried to control Latin America, and become more powerful in the process. Relations Mexico improved relations with Cuba and Chile. The United States did not like this because Cuba was communist, backed by the Soviets. Mexico and America have a land border which Russia could have used for ground invasion. (Maung) (Papa) Effects 40-60 thousand people were killed, thousands more sent on exile ((Duvalier 1)
The Duvalier s left Haiti in Chaos, and in poverty. (Haiti) ("Juan Peron Biography") ("Argentina") ("Brazil Guide") CIVIL WARS Chamorro Once Chamorro was elected in 1990 the United States ended their embargo on Nicaragua, and provided support (Euraque 2).
The Nicaraguan government privatized parts of the economy that were privatized by the Sandinistas (Euraque 2).
Chamorro undid what the Sandinistas did, but did not make it "better", Nicaragua is still a poor nation. (Euraque) Economy The Guatemalan economy is poor.
Their main source of income comes from agriculture related goods (Euraque).
Mountain springs are used to provide hydroelectric power at low cost (Euraque). (Euraque) (Garcia) Other The El Salvadoran economy is very poor, but is developing well. The economy is diversifying from just agriculture based to agriculture, manufacturing, and services (Garcia)
The heath of El Salvadorans is low because of malnutrition. However there has been a rise in American fast food industries in El Salvador which may counteract this problem. ("Latin America Map") (Garcia)