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The great gods of the Incas were the forces of nature, especially the Sun, Inti and the Moon, Quilla. Other important deities were lightning, the rainbow and the bright stars. Over all reigned Viracocha, the Creator. Was at the same time the father and mother of the Sun and the Moon. It was often thought of as an old man with white hair.
Art and technologies
The Inca Empire was a vast empire that flourished in the Andean region of South America from the early 15th century A.D. up until its conquest by the Spanish in the 1530s. Even after the conquest, Inca leaders continued to resist the Spaniards up until 1572 when its last city, Vilcabamba, was captured.
There is some debate about the number of people inhabiting Tawantinsuyu at its peak, with estimates ranging from as few as 4 million people, to more than 12 million.
In 1532 Pizarro arrived in Peru with a group of Spanish soldiers, lured by the legends that spoke of huge amounts of gold. Taking advantage of a civil war broke out between the Incas, the Spaniards were able to quickly overwhelm the natives. Then administered the country as a feudal province of Spain. Gradually all the ancient Inca traditions were lost.
Quechuan, also known as
("people's language"), is a Native South American language family spoken primarily in the Andes, derived from a common ancestral language. It is the most widely spoken language family of “theindigenous” people of the Americas, with a total of probably some 8 million to 10 million speakers
The main resources available to the Inca Empire were agricultural land and labour, mines (producing precious and prestigious metals such as gold, silver or copper), and fresh water, abundant everywhere except along the desert coast. With careful manipulation of these resources, the Incas managed to keep things moving the way they wanted. Tribute in the form of service (mit’a) played a crucial role in maintaining the empire and pressurizing its subjects into ambitious building and irrigation projects.
The Inca Empire was a federalist system which consisted of a central government with the Inca at its head and four quarters, or suyu. The four corners of these quarters met at the center, Cusco. These suyu were likely created around 1460 during the reign of Pachacuti before the empire assumed it largest territorial extent. It is probably the case, that at the time, the suyu were established they were roughly of equal size and only later changing their proportions as the empire expanded north and south along the Andes.
The colonial-era sources are not entirely clear or in agreement about the nature of the structure of the Inca government. However, its basic structure can be spoken of broadly, even if the exact duties and functions of government positions cannot be told. At the top of the chain of administration sat the Sapa Inca. Next to the Sapa Inca in terms of power may have been the Willac Umu, literally the "priest who recounts", who was the High Priest of the Sun.
Architecture was by far the most important of the Inca arts, with textiles reflecting motifs that were at their height in architecture. The main example is the capital city of Cusco. The site of Machu Picchu was constructed by Inca engineers. The stone temples constructed by the Inca used a mortarless construction that fit together so well that a knife could not be fitted through the stonework.