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Transcript of Athlete Aggression
On the Rink and Off the Ice Michael Hoad Sarah Croden
Collette Vint Tom Lewington
Stephanie King Athlete Violence
Socialization for Violence
Frequency of Violence
Objectification of Women
Aggression in the News
Activity! Agenda Socialization for Violence Socialization for Violence Structure of the Sport Powerful socialization process determinant of violence
Sports offers masculine qualities
Violence behaviour can come from three main sources Reference Groups Sports violence prepares boys for male adult life
Backing away from a fight makes him a ‘chicken’
Sport aggression training men to be violent against women Moral dilemma between winning and being ethical
By 15, boys are judged by pain tolerance and ability to give pain
Competence is linked to aggressive play Attitudes of Community & Society Support from institutions and community for violence in sports
Society fails to blame athlete for violence outside sports
Bars encouraging male athlete aggressive behaviour Discussion Questions 1) In what ways does participation in hockey promote a culture of aggression and violence?
2) From your family and/or friends, have you seen sports influence the men in your life’s aggression? Study Hockey Socialization Alcohol Consumption Objectification of Women Female Aggression Discussion Questions Aggression in the News Near universal amongst hockey players
Causal agent - transition of violence from sport to social interaction
Alcoholism in the NHL
Alcohol consumption more highly correlated to sexual aggression than athletic participation Men express their sense of togetherness by demeaning women
Encourages boys to see women as inferior, sexual objects
Reinforced by focus on traditional male behaviours that are important for sports success
Discussed as a somewhat routine occurrence in hockey cultures Skills Influences Fighting is seen as more important than skating skills for a player's success
Ability to fight becomes a coveted trait
Fighting is part of the game Major influences cause aggressive behaviour
Influence from coaches, teammates and fans Method Purpose of study: explore the nature of aggression and violence in hockey and related to interpersonal violent behaviours on and off the ice
Participants: 5 former hockey players
Primary source of data: semi-structured in-depth interviews Athlete Violence 3 types of violence addressed Elizabeth Lambert
No hitting in women’s hockey
European players Aggression in the News (cont.) Should hitting be allowed in women’s hockey? Why or why not?
Should fighting be taken out of men’s hockey? Why or why not? Conclusion Patrick Kane vs. a cab driver
Globe and Mail survey
Majority of Canadians want a fighting ban in hockey Yeardley Love murder Jarramy Stevens Oscar Pistorius Frequency of Violence Violence is considered routine
Violence on and off the rink
Conformity leads to normality
Violent behavior before playing the sport Interpersonal aggression is common in hockey players, both on the ice and off the ice
Violence and aggression are both tolerated and encouraged through hockey socialization
Violence viewed as essential for success
Players aggression and violence not limited to the sport
Alcohol has a role in off-rink violence
Athletes had a lesser regard for women
Limitations: researcher knew participants, nothing on other sports, no women in contact sports Activity! Did you read the chapter? Team 1 Team 2 Thanks for listening! Have a safe St. Patty's and don't
get into any fights! Question Are people who choose to play heavy contact sports more likely than others to see aggression as an appropriate way to deal with life stressors?