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English Language Learners ~ Chapter 11

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Jen Sugra

on 22 April 2014

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Transcript of English Language Learners ~ Chapter 11

Meeting the Needs of English Language Learners:
Chapter 11

How Can We Better Prepare Our Teachers to Meet the Needs of ELLs?
Over 5.5 million ELL's in US public schools. This number is expected to grow at the rate of 10% per year
(LeClair, Doll, Osborn & Jones, 2009)
What teachers need to know:
First Generation Immigrants
(Students who were born outside the US)

Second Generation Immigrants

(Students whose parents are immigrants, but they were born in the US)

1.5 Generation
(Students who were born overseas, but moved to the US at a young age)
(Portes & Rivas, 2007)
Short Clip on ELLs
VYGOTSKY'S COGNITIVE THEORY
and how it relates to the main ideas
Basic Assumptions of Theory



Vygotsky believed that adults have a huge influence on the cognitive development of children and their role was very important

He also believed that a person's social and cultural environment heavily influenced their cognitive development










(Ormrod, 2014)
When determining what classroom strategies to use, teachers must understand the students' cultures and social environments.

Teachers also need to assess the students to ensure that they are teaching them at their cognitive levels, and not assuming because English is not their first language that they lack certain knowledge


The teacher needs to build a relationship with the students to encourage them and motivate them to learn

Teachers need to come up with learning strategies that encourage independent learning of topics, and challenge the students abilities
(Onchwari, Onchwari & Keengwe, 2008)
(Onchwari et al, 2008)
Creating a Positive ELL Classroom Environment (Watch this video)
What Classroom Strategies Can Teachers Use to Increase School Achievement Rates for ELLs?
Understand the value of including the ELLs native language when teaching academic content
Understand what it means to be culturally responsive to students
How can we show value for the ELLs language




Provide books and websites with content knowledge in their home language

Give the students the vocabulary words ahead of time

Allow group discussions of topics in class with other students who speak the same language


Use pictures, experiments, role plays to create visuals with English words
Use interactive teaching methods

Be expressive and use non verbal communication often

Set consistent classroom routines





(LeClair et al, 2009)
Make connections between school and home environments

Encourage students to speak about their cultures

Involve parents in education

Use examples in the lessons that are relevant to the different cultures in the classroom

Display posters and artifacts in classroom from different cultures



Have days where students do show and tell about something significant to them about their culture

Understand the cultural norms of each student's culture

Build relationships with every student, and focus on students building relationships with each other

Create a safe environment
Vygotsky's Theory (Watch this short video clip)
More Ways to Show Value..
Teachers must understand the role of native language literacy on English language acquisition
Teachers must understand the language acquisition process of ELLs
Additive approaches-
instructional methods that build on
students’ home languages and cultures.

Subtractive approaches-
instructional methods that attempt to replace children’s home languages and cultures with
English and mainstream culture.

Shared language- Repeated use of a few key
words or phrases used during instruction

Story grammar- the required elements:
main character(s)
setting
event
attempt to solve the problem
resolution

Teachers need to be trained to
ensure when the proper content is being taught, while adapting instructional methods and reducing linguistic barriers


Consider a vocabulary term we have discussed during 421.







(López, Scanlan, and Gundrum, 2013)
Five stages of Language Acquisition

Silent/Receptive/Pre-productive - ELLs are taking it all in. Student will communicate nonverbally, if at all

Early Production - start to use short phrases

Speech Emergence - communicate with short sentences




Intermediate Fluency - start to think in English, and use more complex sentences

Advanced Fluency - ELLs are near native in their ability to perform in second language
(Berg, Petron, Greybeck, 2012)
(Berg, Petron, Greybeck, 2012)
Four Phases of Language Acquisition
WHO
is an
English Language Learner (ELL)?
Unique challenges- many live in communities where only their home language is spoken; the language used in business transactions, conversations, television, and the radio is not in English

Consider Vygotsky:
Adult influences on cognitive development ~ cultural environment huge influence



Preproduction:
The first of four phases of children’s
second language acquisition. Although they are silent, they are actively listening to the sounds of English spoken around them and trying to connect the actions they see with the sounds they hear.

They intuitively acquire information about English intonation, pacing, pausing, loudness, and pitch

Total physical response (TPR)- a vocabulary development activity for English Language Learners in which teachers hold up an object or a picture of an object and say its name, and children respond physically rather than verbally to indicate their understanding

Thoughts and language become interdependent as a child gets older

Children adapt ideas to fit their own culture and use them accordingly

The simple tasks in life do not promote cognitive development, so we need to make sure we are challenging our students
(Ormrod, 2014)
Teachers must understand the role of culture within the classroom environment
ELLs require more careful analysis
of the text before presenting it to
students in either
shared reading
or
guided reading
. This analysis is needed to detect problems that would create confusion for ELLs. For example,
figurative language
and
idioms
are possible areas in which ELLs may have difficulty comprehending

Homophones
- words that sound alike but are not spelled the same (bare and bear)

Homographs
- words that are spelled the same but do not sound alike, such as bow in bow and arrow and bow in bow to the king

Teachers must understand the effective mechanisms for teaching language and literacy to ELLs
Cooperative Grouping - put ELLs in groups with English only speaking students

Speak clearly and slowly, and enunciate well

Provide written materials to go along with all oral presentations

Write key words on board, and ask ELLs if the there are similar words in their language

Focus on content not form with ELLs
Onchwari, G., Onchwari, J., & Keengwe, J. (2008).
Teaching the Immigrant Child: Application of Child Development Theories. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(3), 267-273. Doi:10.1007/s10643-008-0269-9

Ormrod, J. (2014). Educational psychology: developing learners. (8th ed., pp. 36-41). Boston: Pearson.

Peercy, M. (2011). Preparing English Language Learners for the Mainstream: Academic Language and Literacy Practices in Two Junior High School ESL Classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 27(4), 324-362.

Portes, A. & Rivas, A. (2011). The Adaptation of Migrant Children. Future of Children, 21(1), 219-246.

(Peercy, 2011)
(Berg, Petron, and Greybeck, 2012)
(Peercy, 2011)
(Berg, Petron and Greybeck, 2012)
Berg, H., Petron, M., & Greybeck, B. (2012). Setting the Foundation for Working with English Language Learners in the Secondary Classroom. American Secondary Education, 40(3), Summer 2012, 34 – 44.

LeClair, C., Doll, B., Osborn, A., & Jones, K. (2009). English language learners’ and non-English language learners’ perceptions of the classroom environment. Psychology In The Schools, 46(6), 568-577.

Lopez, F., Scanlan, M., & Gundrum, B. (2013). Preparing Teachers of English Language Learners: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(20), 1-31.

Meskill, C. (2005). Infusing English Language Learner Issues Throughout Professional Educator Curricula: The Training All Teachers Project. Teachers College Record, 107(4), 739-756.

References
Early production:
The second of four phases of children’s second language acquisition, notable for children’s attempting to speak but still using very limited language, drawing on the words and gestures learned in vocabulary games or other interactions during the first, mostly silent phase.

Speech emergence
The third of four phases of children’s second language acquisition. This stage is notable for children continuing to acquire vocabulary and developing a wider range of sentence structures.


Intermediate fluency:
The fourth of four phases of children’s second language acquisition, notable for children having acquired sufficient vocabulary and fluency with a variety of sentence structures that they are ready to acquire academic concepts in reading, writing, math, and science.
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