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English Language Learners ~ Chapter 11
Transcript of English Language Learners ~ Chapter 11
How Can We Better Prepare Our Teachers to Meet the Needs of ELLs?
Over 5.5 million ELL's in US public schools. This number is expected to grow at the rate of 10% per year
(LeClair, Doll, Osborn & Jones, 2009)
What teachers need to know:
First Generation Immigrants
(Students who were born outside the US)
Second Generation Immigrants
(Students whose parents are immigrants, but they were born in the US)
(Students who were born overseas, but moved to the US at a young age)
(Portes & Rivas, 2007)
Short Clip on ELLs
VYGOTSKY'S COGNITIVE THEORY
and how it relates to the main ideas
Basic Assumptions of Theory
Vygotsky believed that adults have a huge influence on the cognitive development of children and their role was very important
He also believed that a person's social and cultural environment heavily influenced their cognitive development
When determining what classroom strategies to use, teachers must understand the students' cultures and social environments.
Teachers also need to assess the students to ensure that they are teaching them at their cognitive levels, and not assuming because English is not their first language that they lack certain knowledge
The teacher needs to build a relationship with the students to encourage them and motivate them to learn
Teachers need to come up with learning strategies that encourage independent learning of topics, and challenge the students abilities
(Onchwari, Onchwari & Keengwe, 2008)
(Onchwari et al, 2008)
Creating a Positive ELL Classroom Environment (Watch this video)
What Classroom Strategies Can Teachers Use to Increase School Achievement Rates for ELLs?
Understand the value of including the ELLs native language when teaching academic content
Understand what it means to be culturally responsive to students
How can we show value for the ELLs language
Provide books and websites with content knowledge in their home language
Give the students the vocabulary words ahead of time
Allow group discussions of topics in class with other students who speak the same language
Use pictures, experiments, role plays to create visuals with English words
Use interactive teaching methods
Be expressive and use non verbal communication often
Set consistent classroom routines
(LeClair et al, 2009)
Make connections between school and home environments
Encourage students to speak about their cultures
Involve parents in education
Use examples in the lessons that are relevant to the different cultures in the classroom
Display posters and artifacts in classroom from different cultures
Have days where students do show and tell about something significant to them about their culture
Understand the cultural norms of each student's culture
Build relationships with every student, and focus on students building relationships with each other
Create a safe environment
Vygotsky's Theory (Watch this short video clip)
More Ways to Show Value..
Teachers must understand the role of native language literacy on English language acquisition
Teachers must understand the language acquisition process of ELLs
instructional methods that build on
students’ home languages and cultures.
instructional methods that attempt to replace children’s home languages and cultures with
English and mainstream culture.
Shared language- Repeated use of a few key
words or phrases used during instruction
Story grammar- the required elements:
attempt to solve the problem
Teachers need to be trained to
ensure when the proper content is being taught, while adapting instructional methods and reducing linguistic barriers
Consider a vocabulary term we have discussed during 421.
(López, Scanlan, and Gundrum, 2013)
Five stages of Language Acquisition
Silent/Receptive/Pre-productive - ELLs are taking it all in. Student will communicate nonverbally, if at all
Early Production - start to use short phrases
Speech Emergence - communicate with short sentences
Intermediate Fluency - start to think in English, and use more complex sentences
Advanced Fluency - ELLs are near native in their ability to perform in second language
(Berg, Petron, Greybeck, 2012)
(Berg, Petron, Greybeck, 2012)
Four Phases of Language Acquisition
English Language Learner (ELL)?
Unique challenges- many live in communities where only their home language is spoken; the language used in business transactions, conversations, television, and the radio is not in English
Adult influences on cognitive development ~ cultural environment huge influence
The first of four phases of children’s
second language acquisition. Although they are silent, they are actively listening to the sounds of English spoken around them and trying to connect the actions they see with the sounds they hear.
They intuitively acquire information about English intonation, pacing, pausing, loudness, and pitch
Total physical response (TPR)- a vocabulary development activity for English Language Learners in which teachers hold up an object or a picture of an object and say its name, and children respond physically rather than verbally to indicate their understanding
Thoughts and language become interdependent as a child gets older
Children adapt ideas to fit their own culture and use them accordingly
The simple tasks in life do not promote cognitive development, so we need to make sure we are challenging our students
Teachers must understand the role of culture within the classroom environment
ELLs require more careful analysis
of the text before presenting it to
students in either
. This analysis is needed to detect problems that would create confusion for ELLs. For example,
are possible areas in which ELLs may have difficulty comprehending
- words that sound alike but are not spelled the same (bare and bear)
- words that are spelled the same but do not sound alike, such as bow in bow and arrow and bow in bow to the king
Teachers must understand the effective mechanisms for teaching language and literacy to ELLs
Cooperative Grouping - put ELLs in groups with English only speaking students
Speak clearly and slowly, and enunciate well
Provide written materials to go along with all oral presentations
Write key words on board, and ask ELLs if the there are similar words in their language
Focus on content not form with ELLs
Onchwari, G., Onchwari, J., & Keengwe, J. (2008).
Teaching the Immigrant Child: Application of Child Development Theories. Early Childhood Education Journal, 36(3), 267-273. Doi:10.1007/s10643-008-0269-9
Ormrod, J. (2014). Educational psychology: developing learners. (8th ed., pp. 36-41). Boston: Pearson.
Peercy, M. (2011). Preparing English Language Learners for the Mainstream: Academic Language and Literacy Practices in Two Junior High School ESL Classrooms. Reading & Writing Quarterly, 27(4), 324-362.
Portes, A. & Rivas, A. (2011). The Adaptation of Migrant Children. Future of Children, 21(1), 219-246.
(Berg, Petron, and Greybeck, 2012)
(Berg, Petron and Greybeck, 2012)
Berg, H., Petron, M., & Greybeck, B. (2012). Setting the Foundation for Working with English Language Learners in the Secondary Classroom. American Secondary Education, 40(3), Summer 2012, 34 – 44.
LeClair, C., Doll, B., Osborn, A., & Jones, K. (2009). English language learners’ and non-English language learners’ perceptions of the classroom environment. Psychology In The Schools, 46(6), 568-577.
Lopez, F., Scanlan, M., & Gundrum, B. (2013). Preparing Teachers of English Language Learners: Empirical Evidence and Policy Implications. Education Policy Analysis Archives, 21(20), 1-31.
Meskill, C. (2005). Infusing English Language Learner Issues Throughout Professional Educator Curricula: The Training All Teachers Project. Teachers College Record, 107(4), 739-756.
The second of four phases of children’s second language acquisition, notable for children’s attempting to speak but still using very limited language, drawing on the words and gestures learned in vocabulary games or other interactions during the first, mostly silent phase.
The third of four phases of children’s second language acquisition. This stage is notable for children continuing to acquire vocabulary and developing a wider range of sentence structures.
The fourth of four phases of children’s second language acquisition, notable for children having acquired sufficient vocabulary and fluency with a variety of sentence structures that they are ready to acquire academic concepts in reading, writing, math, and science.