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Becks Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II)

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Allie Johnson

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Transcript of Becks Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II)

Cost (as of 1999):
$57 per complete kit including manual and 25 recording forms

$27 per manual

$29.50 per 25 recording forms (English or Spanish)

$112 per 100 recording forms (English or Spanish)
Test Publisher:
The Psychological Corporation
555 Academic Court
San Antonio, TX 78204-2498
Construct Assessed:
Depression and the level of severity
Qualifications for Administration:
College-level training in:
general measurement
statistical concepts essential for interpreting test results for different audiences

Must have a thorough understanding of:
purposes of the instrument
characteristics of the person being assessed relative to the normative standard sample
administration procedures
scoring

Appropriate training and competence of administrators helps prevent misuse of the test.
Target Population:
Adolescents and adults, 13 years
of age and older
Validity
Correlation between tests and sub-tests are high

High correlations are taken as convergent validity related evidence

Low correlations between measures that are supposed to differ is evidence of discriminant validity
Shares a moderate correlation with the Beck Anxiety Inventory
Ex: The measures between BDI-II and HRSD-R was significantly less

The principal goal of factor analysis is to reduce the number of dimensions needed to describe the construct of interest
Ex: Instead of discussing each sub-test of IQ-discuss the clusters

Factor analysis of the instrument in a large sample of college students replicated the findings presented in the BDI-II manual, thus providing a strong indication for the overall stability of the factor structure with different samples
Reliability
Coefficient alphas in the sample:
.92 for the outpatient population (n = 500)
.93 for the college students (n = 120)

Both surpass the coefficient alphas for BDI-I and BDI-IA

Testing and re-testing:
Took place over one week
Correlation of .93 resulted from a study of 26 outpatients (referred for depression)
BDI-II taken during first and second therapy sessions (Beck et al., 1996)

Reliability across ethnic groups and aging populations:
White and Mexican- American subjects
Internal consistency coefficient of .80 was computed for the BDI-IA
No significant differences were found between participants from the two cultural backgrounds
Reliability across ethnic groups and aging populations is supported (Ames, Gatewood-Colwell, & Kaczmarek, 1989)
General Test Information
Purpose and Nature of BDI-II
Technical Evaluation
Becks Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II)
Name of Test:
Becks Depression Inventory- II (BDI-II)
Authors:
Beck, Aaron T., Brown, Gregory, K., & Steer, Robert A.
Current Edition Date:
1996
Intended Purpose:
Developed for the assessment of symptoms corresponding to criteria for diagnosing depressive disorders listed in the DSM IV
Standardized Information:
The BDI-II contains 21 items
Each item assesses a different symptom or attitude that the subject may have experienced in the last 2 weeks
Assessment is performed through graded statements that are weighted from 0 (not present) to 3 (severe) based on levels of severity, in relation to depression.
The BDI-II is a self-report measure that asks the subject to choose the highest weighted statement that applies to him/her.
The BDI-II should not be the only instrument used in diagnoses of depression
The BDI-II is a revised version of the BDI-I and the BDI-IA- significant improvements are seen in:
content
psychometric validity
external validity
Certification required:
Clinical certification is required in order for the test scores to be interpreted.

Clinical certification is obtained through completing required training courses and passing the necessary certification examination(s).
Norms
Response Interpretation: criterion- referenced

Standardization sample (Beck et al., 1996):
317 women
183 men.
Urban based populations (two sub-samples)
Rural based populations (two sub-samples)
Outpatients:
Cherry Hill, NJ: 277
Philadelphia, PA: 127
Bala Cynwyd, PA: 50
Louisville, KY: 46
Average age: 37.20 years
Age Range: 13-86 years
Ethnicity:
Caucasians: 91%
African-Americans: 4%
Asian-Americans: 1%

Assessment Items (BDI-II):
Measures severity of depression in adolescents and adults
Specifically addresses the DSM-IV criteria for depression
Strengths:
Time: 5 to 10 minutes

Empirical Foundation

Revision:
Two previous forms: BDI-I and BDI-IA

Likert scale:
range: 0-none to 3-severe
based on behavior over last 14 days

New items addressed:
psychomotor agitation
sense of worthlessness
loss of energy
difficulty with concentration

Manual provides straight-forward guidelines on use, administration, scoring, and interpretation

Item content:
consistent with the DSM-IV and APA, 1994
sleep and appetite items address increases and decreases
(last 14 days)
Weaknesses:
Manual:
too concise
omits important details about development process
Self-reporting measure:
subject can manipulate responses
distorted results
Possible Misuse:
Response Bias
Lack of differences in levels of extreme negative thinking between different levels of depression.
Format
Administration and Method of Scoring:
Time: ~ 5-10 minutes
Little training is required to administer or score the test
may be performed by paraprofessionals
Score Interpretation:
requires a professional with clinical training and experience
21- item rating scale:
questions are easy to comprehend
responses are easy to record
Hand scoring only:
time efficient
little effort
Total Score:
combine subtotals from pages one and two
Types of scores/scales yielded:
Assess depressive symptoms
Clinical interpretation of scores (Beck et al., 1996):
Criterion-referenced procedures
Interpretive ranges:
0-13 - minimal depression
14-19 - mild depression
20-28 -moderate depression
29-63 - severe depression
Uses Likert scale:
0- not present
3- severe
Two exceptions:
Question 16: changes in sleep patterns
Question 18: changes in appetite
The scale in these two items consist of:
0, I a, lb, 2a, 2b, 3a, & 3c.
People are asked to report feelings consistent with their own over the past 2 weeks
The reason for this is to be consistent with the DSM-IV criteria for depression.

Test Format & Procedures:
21 items that assess depressive symptoms on a Likert scale
Changes from BDI-I and BDI-IA include:
Dropped items:
Change in body image; Work difficulty; Weight loss; Somatic preoccupation
BDI-I & BDI-IA rated responses over last 7 days
BDI-II now includes the following new items:
Agitation; Worthlessness; Loss of energy; Difficulty concentrating
Current item content:
sadness
pessimism
Past failure
Loss of pleasure
Guilty feelings
Punishment feelings
Self-dislike
Self-criticalness
Suicidal thoughts or wishes
Crying
Agitation
Loss of interest
Indecisiveness
Worthlessness
Loss of energy
Changes in sleeping pattern
Irritability
Changes in appetite
Concentration difficulty
Tiredness or fatigue
Loss of interest in sex.
Matches DSM-IV diagnostic criteria for depression:
addresses increases and decreases in appetite (one item)
addresses hypersomnia and hyposomnia (one item)
asks for ratings over the past 2 weeks.
References:
Ames, M. H., Gatewood-Colwell, G., & Kaczmarek, M. (1989). Reliability and validity of the Beck Depression Inventory for White and Mexican-American gerontic population. Psychological Reports, 65, 1163-1165.

Beck, A. T., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1996). Beck Depression Inventory II manual. San Antonio, TX: The Psychological Corporation.

Beck, A. T., Brown, G., & Steer, R. A. (1989). Sex differences on the revised Beck Depression Inventory for outpatients with affective disorders. Journal of Personality Assessment, 53, 693-702.

Beck, A. T., Steer, R. A., Brown, G. K, (1996). Test review of Beck Depression Inventory II. In B.S. Plake & J.C. Impara (Eds.), The fourteenth mental measurement yearbooks. Retrieved from the Burros Institute’s Mental Measurement Yearbook online database.

Urbina, Susanna (2004). Essentials of psychological testing. Hoboken, New Jersey: John Wiley & Sons, Inc.
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