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Transcript of Timelines
January 22, Bloody Sunday
- Father Gapon wrote a petition to the Tsar in regards of poor working conditions.
- Father Gapon and many workers came to present the petition to the Tsar in the Winter Palace.
- The Tsar saw this as a threat and ordered troops to shoot anyone at sight.
- The Tsar lost the confidence of the working class and peasants. Opposition groups gained a lot of support.
October 17, October Manifesto
- Nicholas II felt pressured by the opposition.
- Under Witte's influence, Nicholas II wrote the October Manifesto which included:
- Freedom of press
- Freedom of assembly
- Freedom of speech
- Creation of a bicameral parliament
- Creation of dummas
- Opposition was split after the creation of the manifesto.
October 1853, Crimean War
- A war between Russia against the Ottoman Empire. France and Britain joined later.
- Nicholas I died by pneumonia, March 1855.
- Alexander took over during war.
- Russia lost because adversaries had better technology.
- Alexander II was forced to remove bases from the Black Sea
- Major reassessment of Russia`s social and economical structure.
1864 judicial reform
1861 emancipation of serfdom
1865 railway expansion
1874 military reform
1881 first duma
•Bad weather in 1890 and 1891 (dry weather and early winter)
•Poor communication didn’t allow for food to be distributed properly
•Russian government insisted no keeping their exporting the same even with less production
•Farms were not being used properly and therefore it was being ineffective with the amount of production.
- It took Alexander II about 5 years to complete his Emacipation edit. From March 1856 to February 1861.
- The main issues were land and control,
- For the serfs to have personal freedom it took 2 years, they were then able to marry without interference, have their own land, own businesses and use law courts.
- Freed peasants were allowed ownership of their houses.
- The landlords who had lost land to the peasants were compensated by the government.
- Before the reforms in 1861 there was a more conservative line which caused a lot of student riots in St.Petersburg.
- More liberal educational reforms.
- Universities had much more indepedence; there were lectures on European law and philosophy. - Scholars were allowed to study abroad.
- Poor students didn't need to pay fees and the number of kids attending primary schools increased as the zemstva increased the number of primary schools.
- "student radicalism grew and teaching lectures "appeared to be serving not only academic and economic purposes but also the promotion of political instability" (David Saunders.)"
1907, Stolypin Reforms
-Nicholas II appointed Peter Stolypin Prime Minister in 1907.
- Played an important role restoring order and crushing opposition in 1907.
- His reforms were essential to a relative stability situation in Russia before the WWI
-Reforms done by Stolypin:
-Redemptions payments cancelled.
-Peasants gained free ownership of their land.
-Right to leave the Mir & become landholders
-Peasants who sold their land could become wage laborers, move to new cities or go to Siberia.
- Stolypin's reforms were created based on this idea: needed a class of prosperous peasants to strengthen the support of the regime.
1911 Stolypin's Death
-1916 24% of households in European Russia owned their own land.
-Over 1.5 million migrated to Siberia(1907-1909). Helped overpopulation.
-Overpopulation problem not solved completely
-created group of alienated peasants.
- 1914 -Few peasants had managed to get their land into a larger farm
-Dmitri Bogrov -member of the Socialist Revolutionary Party,
-Was against his reforms and the support gained from peasants
-Assassinated Stolypin in 1st September 1911
1914, World War I
Reasons for Russia to participate in WW1:
-Concern about European boundaries:
-Growth of United Germany.
-Austro-Hungarian Empire 1867.
-Decline of Ottoman Empire-July 30, 1914
- Russia orders full mobilization to support Serbia against Austria and Germany.
-Britain, France, Serbia and Russia were allies.
- August 1, 1914- Germany declares war on Russia because Russia would not demobilize.
- Countries very optimistic of a short war in the beginning.
- involvement of Russia in the war brought them: food problems, inflation, transportation problems, and military were weak with equipment
- Those happenings caused the February Revolution when Romanov Dynasty ended.
Marx communist manifesto
- “The Communist Manifesto is a declaration of the intentions of a communist organization. In the Manifesto you will find a detailed and succinct explanation of the ideas that form the basis of communist and socialist ideologies.”
- written in 1848
- Marx idea was that each social class had an “opposing class” and wanted to "destroy the lesser one”,
- ideals based on social class, things would naturaly change
13 march 1881
- Alexander II came to power in 1855; he was a Tsar that could be considered liberal compared to other Tsar leaders.
- during his reign he surfed multiple assassinations attempts.
- A successfull attempt was made by Peoples Will in 1881.
- In March 13, 1881 the Tsar leader was murdered. -- After him, his son Alexander III that was not as liberal and had a reign of counter reforms succeded.
Russo-japan war 1904-1905
- Russia had lost on the crime war, with this war, the Tsar leader hoped to recover the greatness of Russia, the contra effect happened.
- war from the Russian and japanese empire between Manchuria and Korea.
- the war happened during 1904-1905, during the reign of Nicholas II.
- japan military force showed to be more powerful and better prepared and forced Russian forces to abandon its expansionist policy in the Far East.
- this defeat caused a bad effect on Russia since it contributed to the 1905 "revolution"
- this was the starting event, combined with years of repression, a bad economical system and horrible working conditions that started the big oppositions that lead to the end of autocracy.
The Great Purge (Ezhovschina)
-1937 meeting of all central committe in order to deal with the opposition and Trotskyites in particular. (the meeting lasted for 11 days)
-Zhdanov put forward the idea that they needed better educated members
-Bukharin expelled from partie
-special commission of 5 politburo members formed to deal with opposition
-meny members from the army were expelled (Trotsky was leader of the red army so meny generals supported him)
-in total 1,706,000 people were arested.
-sailors were former war heros now turned agenstthe bolshevik
-first red attack failed
-if they took too long to attack the ice would melt and it would become imposible to defeat the sailors
-second attack was successful with 50,000 men (reds)
Lenin's Last Article
Stalin vs Trotsky
- After Lenin's death both struggled to get power
- Trotsky did not have the support of the main 'leaders' inside the party
- Trotsky powerful weapon = Lenin's Political Testament
- Talked bad about Stalin
- Was forbidden to be published
-Trotsky didn't support the NEP making him look bad to the Rights
- Trotsky didn't attend Lenin's funeral making him look bad
- Stalin started allying with others to take Trotsky down
- Trostky did not make a move
- Lenin after his stroke kept writing articles to governemnt
-His last testament was called Political Testament
- Lenin made a lot of critiques about Stalin
- Lenin's article was not published until 1956
- The Party and then Stalin's government did not allow it to be published
Collectivization of agriculture
1. Mass procuration of grain campaign was launched before 1930 harvest
a. Managers/officials afraid to be arrested
- Confiscated property of peasants which did not fulfill quota
2. 16 million crops collected
3. 30% of crops collected in some areas
- Mass collectivization
1. Initially persuasion was used
2. Need for quick results increased use of violence
3. Kulaks separated into
a. Counter revolutionaries - got killed
b. Exploiters - got deported
4. Richer peasants
a. Destroyed crops/livestock so local Kolkhoz would not take them
b. Raided kolkhozes to get back their grain/livestock
5. Local parties given collectivization quotas for houses
6. 4% of households identified as kulaks, 15% suffered kulak punishments
7. 150,000 people forced to move north or east to poorer land
8. By 1930 58% of households had been collectivized
a. Serious resistance was encountered with peasants
9. Stalin was pressured by politburo to halt rate of collectivization
10. Official policy returned to voluntary collectivization
11. Many peasants wrongly accused of being kulaks were given their property back
12. By the end of 1930, only 20% of houses were still collectivised
1. Collectivization returned after 1930 harvest
a. By 1931 50% of houses were collectivised
b. By 1934, 70%.
c. By 1937, 90%.
d. Machine tractor stations
- Supplied machines and seeds for kolkhozes
- Kolkhoz - collective farm
e. Collectivization caused famine
- Drought in 1931
- Stalin continued collectivization
- Millions died
- Slowly grain and livestock began to rise
i. 1935 livestock numbers were same as before collectivization
ii. 1953 grain numbers were same as before collectivization
1. Collectivisation Successful?
a. Was undertaken with purpose of increasing grain production
b. Caused famine instead
- 2.5 million people deported to gulags
- Resistance of Kulaks
c. Total grain delivery to state increased in 1928 despite production decline in 1930
d. Interpretation - total production declined but more grain reached urban areas allowing industrialization to happen faster
e. Michael Ellman - Collectivisation provided for industrialization
f. James Millar, Holland Hunter - collectivization was a disaster - little contribution to industrialization programme
Fourth Five Year Plan 1946-50
-Stalin planned for a 15 year long recovery from war plan
-4th Five Year Plan announced on March 1946
-Harsh labor law of 1930`s did not reappear
-The aims were to rebuild heavy industry and revive agriculture and civil needs
-Nine months after the Second War and 2.5 million homeless people had been re-housed
-First year of the 5 Year Plan was not successful, but when mines and factories re-opened, the revival took off
-By 1950, Stalin claimed that that production was equal to or greater than of 1940, although it was not (trying to encourage peasants by faking results). However, rapid recovery was being made.
Beria, head of NKVD
- Joined secret police near the end of Civil war
- 1930 he was the head of police in Georgia
- 1931 leader of communist party of that region
- 1938 Replaced Yezhov, head of secret police
- Beria`s assignments during War:
- evacuate heavy industry from western Russia when Germany was attacking Russia
- Mobilize slave labor to increase wartime production
- 1945, assigned as head the development of an atomic bomb.
- He was successful in all
- Beria was a very mysterious and ambitious man who would do anything to get what he wanted; from blackmailing and framing to torturing and killing.
- Ezhov head of the NKVD (1936- 7)
Ezhov head NKVD
1 - September, 1936 Genrikh Yagoda was replaced as hed of People's Commissariat for Internal Affairs (NKVD) for Nicolai Yezhov.
2 - Ezhov was very close to Stalin.
1 - During his service = around 685 people were executed.
2 - Performed Bukharin and Rykov's 'confession +execution'.
3 - Wanted more sever measures againts opposition.
4 - Responsible for involving: priests, members of political parties, nationalists and former Whites to the purges.
1 - Was arrested 1939, April.
The second five year plan was from 1933 to 1937
•brought all industry under state control and all industrial development was planned by the state.
What would be produced
How much would be produced
Were it should be produced
The Gosplan war created to plan this
The government had unrealistic plans, The target for both plans is in brackets
2. Plan stopped because of Germanic invasion and need to speed up armament
-constructing additional military factories
3. Goal was to grow by 12%
-led to labor shortages
-new plants were built
- Purges led to disorganization
4. First two years were disappointment in terms of production goals
5. Plan failed
The 3rd 5-year plan
1. August 1936
2. NKVD claimed to have discovered Trotskyist-Zinovievist counter revolutionary conspiracy
-Zinoviev, Kamenev and 14 others accused
-plotting to kill Stalin and other members and organizing conspiracy
-all “guilty” and executed
-Bukharin and other opposition members questioned
-probably because of disagreements within the party
3. Stalin replaced Yagoda by Ezhov
-Yagoda “hadn’t been active enough”
Trial of 16
1. Change of heart – became against the NEP
2. Peasants again hoarded food after war scare
- Stalin wanted to industrialize agriculture = control it
3. Bukharin, Rykov and Trotsky noted off Politburo
- Bread and food shortage
-Stalin leans left
- Stalin problems between rightists
- Bukharin leader of right
- 1928 Stalin second revolution
- No more NEP
- Moving towards socialism
- Police totalitarian
- Stalin isn’t a dictator
-Rights considering alliance with the lefts
-lefts would get what they wanted if Stalin succeeds, even though they don't like him
-Stalin has more power
- Bukharin reads speech
- 5th anniversary of Lenin’s death
- Allude to Lenin’s testament
- Stalin should be dismissed
- accused of factionalism
Stalin vs. Right
-Warnings of Germany’s betrayal
-Deserters of Germany
-Stalin refused to believe
-Russian forces unprepared for attack
-1941 - German air forces destroyed Russian forces
-Germany gained lots of territory
-Moscow was evacuated
-Germany did not beat Russia’s forces fast enough
-Winter - troops not prepared, fuel froze
-Russian troops counter-attacked
-Leningrad surrounded and cutoff for 2 years-
-Resilient people - Germany not able to take city
-German army overstretched themselves
-Supplies too far away-Lines were too big
-Russian counter-attack pushed them back
March 15th 1953 - Stalin Dies
-Stalin has a major stroke on the 1st of March
-Medical assistance is delayed
--Stalin suffers for four days and then dies
- Hitler asked for emergency powers
after Reichstag Fire
- 1933, 23rd of March Enabling Act consolidated
- Only 94 SPD members voted against
- Legislations from the Cabinet didnt need presidential approve
- Legislations did not need to pass through Reichstag
- 'Law to Remedy the Distress of People and Reich'
- Hitler had gained a lot of power
Battle of Stalingrad
- Major battle of WWII
- Germany and Soviet Army fought against each other for the control of Stalingrad
- From August 23, 1942 to January 2nd 1943
- German army had heavy losses during this war
- Essential to the turning point in the war
- Nazis were never able to recover
- Resulted in their defeat and Soviets win
- February 27, 1933
- The German parliament was in flames.
- Other than the physical destruction it also led to the solidification of Hitlers dictatorship
- As the Nazis did not have the majority of the seats the destruction was their answer
- Evidence was discovered after WWII that the fire was planned and executed by Goebbels and Goering (interpretation.
- Hitler blammed the communists (this helped him elminate his major political opposition.
- Late march 1933, Hitler presented legislation to the Reichstag in order to transfer powers to himself.
- Members voted for Hitler and proclaimed him the leader of Germany.
-book writn by Hitler
-writen in prison
-talkes about Hitler's iniologies
-in the begining it soled 9473 copies, 3 year late only 3015, however after Hitle became chanceler selles rised once more to 7669 and then 90351 in 1932 selling in total 6 milion copies, Hitler main sourc of income
- 1932 Germany occured the rise of the Nazi party
- Weimar government failed (bad economy)
- humiliation of the post-First World War (Treaty of Versailles )
- elections of 1932, nazi party was popular (40% of the votes)
- lost some popularity
- hitler became postmaster
- 1933,Hitler became Chancellor of Germany
because he was not seen as a strong man
- Hitler would become chancellor and Papen would serve as his vice chancellor
- birth in 1897 in Rheydt
- 1926, Hitler appointed him Gauleiter (district leader) for Berlin
- in July 1927 he started his own newspaper
- hitler appointed Joseph Goebbels as head of propaganda
- he aware of the value of propaganda
Goebbels set up the Reich Chamber of Commerce in 1933
- organization that dealt with literature, art, music, radio, film, newspapers etc
- you needed to be a member of the Reich Chamber to produce any of those.
- Nazi-Soviet Pact
- European countries had realized by the beginning of 1939 that Hitler wanted Poland
- On 23 August, 1939 Russia and Germany signed a 'Non-aggression Pact'
- Germany and the Soviet Union would not attack the other, but did not mean they had to defend each other if one was invaded
- ensure that the USSR did not join with Britain and France against Germany
- german was against communism, russia was pro communism
- agreement to invade and divide the countries of eastern Europe between them
- p0land first\
- germany broke the pact
- due to the war between the soviet union and finland, germany tought that the soviet army was weak
- operation barbarosa started
- German politician of the Social Democratic Party of Germany
- served as Chancellor during the last months of the German Empire
- first President of Germany from 1919 to 1925
- gainst the leftist uprisings
- death of several left politicians and ended the partnership of the SPD with the USPd
- His death is seen as an important break in the Weimar Republic
- which ended less than a decade later.
- it attempted to unite Germany after its defeat in World War I.
Gestapo and SS were established in 1933
- Both joined together in 1934, becoming only the SS
- Himller started leading the SS in 1936
- The SS was responsible for:
- Security and service
- Running concentration camps
- Run genetic modifying programs in the Concentration camps.
- Control labor and supplies in factories
- The SS was composed of 'superior Aryans'
- By 1940, they had their own fighting units, the Waffen SS, similar to the regular army.
The Grand Coalition (Germany):
-Coalition = an alliance or union between groups, factions, or parties
-Formed Under Chancellor Muller in 1928
-Coalition that included the Social Democratic SPD, the Catholic Centre Party and the liberal parties DDP and DVP.
-It was an attempt of Democracy to fortify the government in order to sustain itself against the trouble caused by the Treaty of Versailles
Treaty of Versailles (June)
1- Peace treaty imposed by Allies (Britain, France, USA) on Germany after WWI
2 - Territorial Restrictions
-lost 13% of territory + all colonies
- No annexations allowed
3 - Military Restrictionas
- Forces < 100.000
- No owening + selling of weapons
- Demilitarised Rhineland
4 - Economic Restrictions
- Payment of reparations upon all countries involved = $6.6 billion
- Saar coal fields handed over to France
5 - Humiliated
- Had ethinic Germans living outside boarder (attempt self-determination)
- Had to accept entire war guilt
Russians Take Berlin
1 - Red Army pushed Wehrmacht westwards
2 - German found surrounded
3 - Sept. Russians offensice was stepped up = 60% of land lost was recovered (since 1941)
4 - Aug (1944) - German forces pushed out of Soviet Union = Red Army began invading German Axis
5 - Jan. (1945) - Red Army crossed into Germany
6 - Apr. (1945) - Reaches River Elbe
7 - MAY 1945 = ENTER BERLIN
-prolonged militar operation by Germans against leningrad in eastern front
-started 8th sep 1941
-finished 18 jan 1944
-seige lasted for 900 days
-longest most destructive siege in history
-632,000 people are thought to have died
-one of the three goals of operation barbarossa
-hitler wanted to destroy the town
-11% of russias output came form there
-germans planned on striving the people on the city by creating blockades
-no food or supplies
-leningrad was surrounded
-bombarded by air
-propaganda leaflets; starve or surrender
-September 8th, German tanks were just 10 miles from Leningrad and the city was cut-off from the rest of Russia by any form of land communication
-Supplies by air and water
-soon ran out of food
-winter 1941-42 was vey intense
-fuel in German tanks froze
-dec. 9th germans pushed back 50 miles
-unprepared for winter
-city could then have supplies
-Siege only lifted after German retreat due to Red Army advantage
-stalin ordered leaders of the city to be arrested after the siege because they failed to contact Moscow frequently
Seige of Leningrad
-SA lost leadership
-SS led by Himmler assumed more power
-Hitler felt threatened by some people in the party ben after the Enabling act
-worried that the army wasn't loyal to him
-Night of the long knives would provide the oath of allegiance and removed SA leaders
-1934 SA had 2 million men
-helped enforce nazi ideals all along
-Röhm had made enemies with Himmler, Goering and Goebbels
-regular army saw them as a threat to their authority
-Röhm wanted to absorb the army into the SA
-summer 1934 hitler had made a pact with the army
--SA leaders were to be removed
-SA men would be under control of the army
-swear an oath of loyalty to hitler
-night of june 29th 1934
-Units of the SS arrested SA leaders
-arrests carried on for 2 more nights
-SS became main nazi force
-lead by Himmler
Night of Long Knives
-Germany reacted with Operation Axis, the Allies with Operation Avalanche.
-Operation Avalanche (allies): invation of Italy, begin oushing the Germans back up the peninsula
-Operation Axis (axies): German troops entered Rome, 1,646 Italian soldiers were murdered by Germans on the Greek island of Cephalonia
-One of the goals of Operation Axis was to keep Italian navy vessels out of the Allies hands.
Battel of Iow Jima
February 19 – March 26 1945
-also known as Operation Detachment
-goal was to invade Iwo Jima (Japanies millitary base)
-First attack in Japanies territory
-more American deaths than Japanies
-Japanies lost the battel
-capturing Iow Jima provaided an "advatage" when attacking Japanies main land
-Signed on 14 May 1955
-Treaty between 8 communist states of Central and Eastern Europe existant during the Cold War.
-"Proposed" by USSR
-All countries with in the pact pledged the mutual defense of any member who would be attacked
-Was broken in December 1989 with a revolution in Romania that overtrough the communist governament
July 17 - August 1 of 1945
Germany had been defeared
Roosevelt dead, Truman replaces him
Churchill replaced by Atlee
Policies and concessions of Yalta being questionedObjectives
Dealing with what had not been dealt with
Satellite states under nazi controlItaly
Borders of Poland
Russia claimed they deserved most of it
Not managing to deal with issues
Truman becomes less lenient
Do not need Russia’s help any more
US has superior force and would be able to dictate actions for other countries
No agreements above borders, but border moving more to the west
Allies told Russia that they could not demand for a fixed sum
Countries were to receive reparations from their area of influence and an extra from the area of the industries
Spheres of influence over Europe
Because they could not agree on how to govern Europe, they began to divide it - Yergin 118
Less successful than Yalta
Relations after Potsdam worsened
Tensions between countries
Division of Berlin
Not good, too closeIn Yalta, Russia had real military power
Capable of finishing off Germany
Tensions get worse after US bombs Japan
Post-war elections in Hungary
December 22, 1944Provisional government established in DebrecenMajority were communistSigned armstice with Soviets in 20th Jan, 1945Allied Control ComissionUS, USSR and UK had complete influenceCommission’s Chairman - Marshal KlimentMember of Stalin’s inner circleStalin decided against immediate communist takeover by communist party, HCP due to western pressuresApril 1945 - Soviets got rid of the Nazis in HungaryNew Provisional National Assembly chosen, government moved to BudapestHCP won majority of seatsProvisional government lasted until November 15, 1945 - new free elections gave most seats to the Small holders’ partyThe National Assembly proclaimed the Hungarian Republic on February 1, 1946, and two Smallholder-led coalitions under Zoltan Tildy and Ferenc Nagy governed the country until May 1947
Roosevelt dies of natural causes
Truman becomes president
Truman adopts hardline policies against soviets
Marshal plan - aimed to ensure Europes support to the US and not to Russia
Doctrine - US government used more abrupt threats to counter USSR expansionist actions
USSR threatening to expand to middle east, US threatened to send troops
- Founded in September 1947
- Organized and established communist party
- 9 European countries involved -> Bulgaria, Czechoslovakia, Hungary, Italy, Poland, France, Romania, Soviet Union, Yugoslavia,
- Aim: Coordinate actions between Communist Countries under Soviet leading
- Ended in 1956
Battle of Midway
-4-7 June in 1942
-One of the most decisive war in WWII
-American code breakers figured out when and where the Japanese attack would take place
-Americans took Japanese by
-Americans destroyed 4 Japenese aircraft carriers
-Weakened Japanese army
-Never able to recover
-Began on November 8th 1942
-British- American invasion in North Africa
-Troops led by General Patton
-Aim: defeat troops led by Romell and get a free way to the Mediterrenean Sea
-By May Rommel troop “Afrika corps” surrendered
- 29 September 1938
- Conference between the representatives of France (Daladier), UK (Chamberlin), Italy (Mussolini), Germany (Hitler)
- Hitler had threatened to invade Czechoslovakia unless Britain supported Germany's plans to take over Sudentenland
- Agreement was signed, Germany occupied Sudentenland between October 1 - 10.
- Chamberlin "peace in our time" British thought war with Germany had been avoided.
- The agreement was broken by Germany as they invaded the whole of Czechoslovakia by March 1939.
- Planned allied attack to get the Nazis out of France by crossing the English Channel
- Hitler placed armed divisions around the beaches of Normandy
- The name D-day was given for the exact date of any military movement
- There were 600 warships, 400 small crafts, 176,000 troops, 11,000 planes in the beach of Normandy
- Lasted from June 6, July 24 1944
- Paris was liberated by August 1944 and by October Germans were out of France.
- The crisis began in 1945 the allies decided to split Germany into four zones of occupation.
- Berlin as a capital was also split into four zones.
- June 1948
- Britain, France and America united their zones which became West Germany
- April, 1948 - Stalin cut off all rail and road links to West Berlin also known as the Berlin Blockade
- Supply in the West was done by air
- By June 1948 The West introduced the new currency which would help trade
>Hitler breaks the attemts of Britain and France to appease his insistance over western territory.
>Germany invades Czechoslovakia
- Breaks Munich Pact => "Lesson of Munich"
>1939: Mussolini + Hitler were making plans to conquere more western EU. and wars.
>>SEPT. 1, 1939 - Germany invades Poland
- britain and France declare war (Beginning of WWII)
- Germany and USSR divides Poland into 2 zones
1 month later Poland is helped by France as the first front invaded Germany.
Pearl Harbor Attack
=> Suprise attack by Japan troops onto the city of Pearl Harbor in Hawaii, US.
- DEC. 7, 1941 - Sunday
>Destroyed 18 warships
>Killed : 2403 cervicemen
*** Turning point otwards the US, who up until then had adopted a neutral/isolationist position towards the war.
> US now became an Ally together with Britain and France, as well as the Communist USSR.
Marshal Plan, 5 Junes, 1947
- Announced on 5 June, 1947
- Aim to revive Western European economies
- The criteria to be helped by the Marshal Plan was that
- US could examine all the financial records of the country
- Allow ‘free enterprise’
- Both USA and USSR saw this as an attempt to weaken Soviet control of Eastern Europe
- Soviet Union saw it as ‘dollar imperialism’
- US gave 17 billion to Western Europe for reparations
Battle of the Bulge
When? – December 16, 1944
Where? – Border areas near Luxembourg, France and Germany
Results? – The Germans began a counterattack against the Allies as the Allies attempted to drive the Germans completely out of France.
Importance? – This battle showed the desperation of the German forces. While the Germans were able to slow down the Allied advance, they could not stop it completely.
Credits to Ms. Hexter's powerpoint on Edmodo
Battle of the Bulge December 16, 1944
Nazi Soviet Pact
The Manhattan Project began modestly in 1939, but grew to employ more than 130,000 people and cost nearly US$2 billionThe Manhattan Project was a research and development project that produced the first atomic bombs during World War II. It was led by the United States with the support of the United Kingdom and Canada.
Manhattan Project starts 1939
A - Bomb
- Under Truman the Manhattan Project was completed => A -bomb ready to be used
- USA still faced econ. and warfare issues with Japan, even after German surrender
=> Japan would not surrender: Bomb approved to push that process.
- Aug. 6, 1945: the bomb "Little Boy" as dropped at Hiroshima - where 70,000 were killed
- Aug. 9, 1945: the model "Fatman" was dropped in Nagasaki, where 40,000.
*This two makor events had a significant impact on the international military and technology community. Showing the power of the US and a period of transition towards the Cold War.
Kennan's Long Telegram
22 February 1946
- Was sent by Kennan from the American Embassy in Russia to James Byrnes
- Portrayed a new method to deal with the USSR
- Portrayed the USSR as expansionists and therefore a threat
- Should contain communism with confrontment
4 April 1949
-The North Atlantic treaty organization was basically a union made between the USA and Western European countries.
-Was created to create a milliraty alliance unifying the US and Western Europe.
-Was made to threaten Russia and communism
-Prevent the USSR's communistic expansion
Blitzkrieg (lightning war) - 1939 - 1942
- Germanys strategy in WWII was to use series of short campaigns.
- The strategy 'Blitzkrieg' demands the concentration of weapons along a narrow front.
- tank divisions would rapidly penetrate which would shock the enemy defences and they would be disorganised.
- Successful in Poland (1939), Denmark (1940), Norway (1940), but Germany wasn't able to defeat Great Britain.
- The Germans invaded the Soviet Union in 1941. At first they seemed successful but the soviets launched counteroffensive in 1942 trapping the German army in Stalingrad.
Alexander II educational reforms
Five Year Plan 1933 to 1937
Operation Barborossa 1941
- Made it much easier and faster
- (Interpretation of judicial system before the reforms) My Past and Thoughts, Alexander Herzen, a Russian exile, 1851. ''A man of humble class who falls into the hands of the law is more afraid of the process of the law itself than on the punishment. He looks forward with impatience to the time he will be sent to Syberia''.
- Before reforms, judicial system was very slow and unfair to the poorer class
•tensions developed when Pearson criticized the American role in the Vietnam War (1963)
•Canada also refused to join the Organization of American States, disliking the support and tolerance of the Cold War OAS for dictators (1963)
•Canada maintained diplomatic and economic ties with Cuba
Paris Summit U2 accident
Russia wanted internationalization and demilitarization of Berlin
West wanted a reunited Germany and free elections
Talks made hopless after Russia shot down american spy plane
Berlin Wall Begins Construction
Soviets rose it to stop mass emigrations from East to West
Khruschev deposed, Breheznev and Kosygin rise
De - Stalinization and liberal forms put to an end
Detènte promoted by Brezhnev
Revolt in Czechoslovakia
Dubcek conducts liberal reforms in Czechoslovakia
Conservatives and leaders of other countries within Warsaw pact do not approve reforms
Warsaw pact invades Czechoslovakia and arrests Dubcek
SPD/FPD win elections in Western Germany
Ostpolitik put in effect
West more lenient with East
1970 Moscow treaty signed
Recognized the end of the war
Established borders around Germany and Poland
-First restrictions on production of ICBMs, SLBMs and long-range bombers
- Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT)
- Finished by May 1972
- Salt I marked a period of arms control.
- Agreement between USSR & US to limit strategic nuclear weapons
- Appeased tensions between the two super powers
- Some types of armaments were not mentioned, which caused the start for the following talks SALT II.
- Warsaw Pact asked for a conference for European Security
- Step for peace
- 3 agreements discussed and decided:
- Recognising 'inviolable' European borders
- Cultural/technological cooperation
-Human rights concessions (specially in the East)
- Nixon & Brezhnev signed Detente
- None would seek advantage of others expense
- Time of "relaxation between tensions"
- Following Salt I; this talk began on 1974 ended on 1979
- The 5 years it took to sign Salt II, contributed to the end of detente
-Limit on the number of bombers, SLBMs, ICBMs and MIRVS agreed
-Ratification of agreement not undertaken by the US when USSR brigands were found in Cuba
- Polish Government imposed Martial Law on Dec. 1981
-USSR wanted less democracy
- USSR was afraid other Eastern European countries would follow Poland
- Poland Solidarity movement was then stopped by USSR
- March 1985 Gorbachev comes into USSR power
- He declares USSR could no longer maintain/ afford to follow each nuclear escalation made by the US
1979 - Jan - US and China establish diplomatic relations
1979 - Nov - Shah of Iran overthrown, Iranian hostage crisis
1979 - Dec - Soviet red army invades Afghanistan
1962 - Sino-Soviet conflict begins
1962 - U.S. involvement in Vietnam increased
1962 - American Military assistance command (MACU) formed in South Vietnam, U.S. military advisors in South Vietnam increase to 12,000 by the end of the year.
1964 - Aug 07 - Congress passes Gulf of Tonkin Resolution 416 to 0 in house and 88-2 in the senate,
thereby authorizing U.s. combat troop involvement in Vietnam
1964 - Oct - China explodes its first atomic bomb
1965 - July - Announcement of dispatching of 150,000 US troops to Vietnam
1965 - Aug - US commits combat troops to south vietnam
1966 - Cultural revolution begins in China. Estimated loss of life 1,600,000. Virtually all universities and schools in China were closed.
1970 - Nixon announces US decision to enter Cambodia to attack North Vietnamese military sanctuaries across the cambodian border.
1972 - Feb - President Richard
Nixon visits China
1973 - Jan - Cease fire in Vietnam between North Vietnam and US
1973 - Jan 27 - Agreement on ending war and restoring peace in Vietnam (The 1973 Paris agreements)
1973 - Oct - Egypt and Syria attack Israel, Egypt requests Soviet aid
1974 - Jan - China uses a combined
naval and air operation to
remove South Vietnamese
troops and occupy the Parcel Islands.
1975 - April - South Vietnam falls to communist forces
1975 - April 17th - North Vietnam defeats South Vietnam
1976 - Feb - Soviet and Cuban forces help install communist government in Angola
1985 - Aug 06 - The South Pacific Nuclear free zone treaty opened for signature after the South Pacific Forum.
COTEXT: Samoza Era
Banana Wars lead to installment of the Samoza family as political dynasty - to rule Nicaragua until 1979
Era characterized by strong American occupation (1912) and support to the gov and military = US protectorate
1 - another example of a Proxy war in the Cold War
2 - Rising opposition to the Samoza dictatorship (1960s and 1970s) Lead by FSLN = Sandinista National Libertation Front
3 - Contra War = between FSLN (leftist collation of political parties = coalition group containing marxists) and the Contras (rightist of the counter-rev. groups)
4 - Both highly up ported by the USA and USSR
5 - Ended through the Tela Accord (1989) demobilization of both sides.
6 - FSLN took power of the gov in 1979 (liberals, radicals, priests and Marxists) their aims: achieve an "independent and non-aliegned" foreign policy, and the creation of a mixed economy in order to achieve social order and economic justice.
7 - Reagen aided Contras against Congress (illegally = non-official sources) this lead to Congress scandal => new Reagan Doctrine
Grenada - Central America
25 October, 1983 Grenada
1 - US invades Grenada after the New JEWEL Movement's (somewhat Marxist-Leninist) leader is assassinated.
2 - JEWEL had planned on building an airport to help with tourism, but US viewed this as a threat because it would be used by Cuba and the USSR as well (for financial aid).
3 - US holds elections, but the action was condemned by the UN.
US gives aid to unsuccessful
military coup in 1989
- CUBA & US break diplomatic
Relations (Jan 03)
- Bays of Pigs ( Aug 17)
- Cuban Missile crisis (Aug – Nov 1962)
- USA / CIA invaded Guatemala (communist since 1954) deposed presidente in fear they would import more weapons from USSR
-Guerrilas in Guatemala from 1968 to 1986 US embassador assassinated. Revolting against US influence in government
- 1970 Chile wanted to nationalise companies, harming US buisness interest in copper mines
- Chile wanted unicameral gov, people’s state
- US desaproved and raised economic sanctions for Cuba
- 1972 cuban package scandal: (russian arms found in packages going to Chille)
Salvador Allende became personal KGB advisor. CIA founded opositions to desestabilize chillean goverment
- 1973 Chile military forces deposed
president Allende with american aid
(finanially helping and buying
-Augusto Pinochet seized total
total power supported by the USA
- 1964 Pres. Eduardo Frei Montalva wins elections in Chile - he had socialist ideas, like unification of the state, power to the people
-goes agains american interest in Chilean buisness
- 1973 – 1990 Pinochet regime: dictatorship, captalist interests, opened up Chile again for forgin investment
1949 - Victory speech by Mao - Jiang Jieshi
- Triumphant victory speech, given at the Date of Heavenly Palace, Beijing
- Mao, Zhou Enlai and other communist leaders were watching the procession of Read Army soldiers, peasant fighters and other party workers.
- Jiang with the remaining members of his army and government fled to Taiwan
- Jiang declared Taiwan to be the seat of the legitimate Chinese Government.
1950 - Land reform campaign
- Government gave peasants land it took from landlords. Private ownership of land
- Destruction of the power and wealth of the landlord class. Before 4 % owned 40% of arable land.
- Peasant encouraged to take the lead in attacking their landlords in organised 'speak bitterness' sessions. About 2 million landlords killed.
- Ownership of land remained private
1951 Three Antis - campaign
- Campaign against corruption, waste and obstruction
- Directed against communist and non-communist
- Struggle Sessions put in practice against managers, state officials and cadres
- Humiliation and group pressure to follow rules
1952 Five Antis - campaign - Mao
- Against: bribery, tax-evasion, theft of state property, cheating in gov. contracts and econ. espionage.
- Workers organizations investigated employers business affairs, forcing their self-criticism and undergo "thought reform"
- Punishments - period in labour camps, fines, property confiscation
- Around 2-3 million committed suicide due to humiliation