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Composition of a healthy diet

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Mark Gleave

on 12 November 2015

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Transcript of Composition of a healthy diet

Components of a Healthy Diet
Micro means small and therefore these nutrients are required in small amounts.

Vitamins- A, B-complex, C, D, E and K. Can be either water soluble (B-complex and C) or fat soluble (A, D, E and K).

Minerals- Iron, zinc, magnesium, calcium, fluoride, selenium, sodium, copper.

Common Micronutrient Deficiency Disorders- anaemia (iron), rickets (vit. D) and osteoporosis (calcium and vit. D).

Found in all foods but mainly fruits, vegetables, nuts, fish, dairy products and cereals
Glycaemic Index
Measure used to rank foods on how quickly they raise blood sugar levels after eating.

High GI foods are digested quickly and cause marked fluctuations in blood sugar levels.

Low GI foods are digested slower and therefore keep you fuller for longer.

Low GI diets have been shown to reduce the onset of type II diabetes and heart disease.
Macronutrients are chemical compounds or complex forms of chemical elements that make up most foods. The predominant function of macronutrients is to provide energy for the body i.e. to keep us alive!
Carbohydrates (CHO)
Required in the largest amount of all macronutrients.

Contributes 45% energy to the diet.

Main source of energy for all tissues and cells

Simple carbs (monosaccharides or sugars)
Smallest units of carbohydrate.

Provide a quick release of energy.
Glucose is the preferred energy source for all cells because it is a simple sugar and therefore easily metabolised.
Complex carbs (starch)
Larger units of carbohydrate.

Provide a slower, more sustained release of energy.

Many vegetables, legumes, fruits and whole grains and brown pasta are high in complex carbohydrates.

It's recommended that you should consume a diet higher in complex carbs than simple carbs in order to stay healthy.
Type of complex carbohydrate that can't be digested.

Plays an important role in waste elimination as it softens stools.

Shown to increase satiety i.e. stops you from being hungry.
Protein (PRO)
Every cell in the body is made up of proteins.

Required in the diet for growth, tissue repair, immune system function, enzyme production, energy (if carbohydrate is not available) and preserving muscle.

May also here them called triglycerides or lipids.

Yields 9kcals energy per gram!

Required by the body for warmth, protection of vital organs, vitamin absorption, taste, consistency, food stability.
Categorised in to 2 types: unsaturated and saturated
Unsaturated Fats
Liquid at room temperature.

Can help reduce cholesterol levels and keep the heart healthy.

Be careful- hydrogenated fats are those that are unsaturated at room temperature but solidify after e.g. cooking
Saturated Fats
Solid at room temperature.

Required by the body in small amounts.

Has been linked to various diseases, which will be discussed later...

Combining foods can effect the GI...
Protein can reduce the GI- just one of the reasons that dieters choose to eat high protein diets.

Fat can also reduce GI


High fat diets will cause excess weight gain due to the high calorie content.
Required to regulate water balance and to transmit information through our nerves and muscles.

Added to food to increase shelf life and palatability.

Found in most 'fast food' products.

Excessive intakes can cause high blood pressure thus leading to heart attacks and stroke.

How much is too much?
Illnesses linked





Many people use a variety of 'fad' diets in order to lose weight.

What are the benefits of 'dieting'?

What are the detriments of 'dieting'?

Eat for 5 days and fast for 2 days (Intermittent Fasting)

Based on the premise that the 2 days of fasting will encourage a person to eat less during the 5 days of 'feast'.

: Easier to stick to 2 days than whole weeks/months, fasting days have shown to reduce body fat.

: Gauging during feast days will lead to weight gain, can cause dizziness, headaches, sleepiness, bad breath and dehydration.

Atkins Diet
Low-carb, high-protein approach to weight loss.

8 week plan starting with an initial proposed weight loss of 15lbs in the first 2 weeks!

: Quick weight loss can be motivating, cuts out alcohol and high sugar foods.

: Dry mouth, bad breath, tiredness, dizziness, insomnia, may increase the risk of heart disease, boring.
Combination Diets
Meal Replacement Diets
- Low-fat diet, exercise and weekly group meetings
- Low-fat, low-GI diet, exercise, own range of ready meals and snacks and education sessions
- Meal delivery service, one-to-one support and exercise plan
- Very low-calorie diet, meal replacement and counselling
- Bars, soups, porridge's and shakes. No meals.
- Bars and shakes. One meal per day.
- Low-calorie diet, weekly meetings and confidential weigh-ins
Non-communicable Diseases
Diseases that are non-infectious or non-transmissible:


Cardiovascular Disease


Chronic Respiratory Diseases
Additional Diet-related Diseases


Diabetes prognosis can be one of 3 types:

Type 1 (Early Onset or Childhood Diabetes)-
Not preventable as the cells in the body that produce insulin are destroyed. Insulin be injected regularly to control blood sugar levels.

Type 2-
Preventable as occurs when not enough insulin is produced or insulin doesn't work properly.

Not preventable but can be controlled via lifestyle factors and occurs in 5% of women during pregnancy.
Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes occurs when the body doesn't produce enough insulin to function properly, or the body’s cells don't react to insulin. This means that glucose stays in the blood and isn't used as fuel for energy. Learn more about the causes of type 2 diabetes.

The high blood sugar level makes you:

•feel thirsty

•pee more than usual, particularly at night

•feel tired all the time

Diabetes- The Stats
It's estimated that more than 1 in 16 people in the UK has diabetes (diagnosed or undiagnosed), and this figure is rising rapidly.

There are currently 3.9 million people living with diabetes in the UK, with 90% of those affected having type 2 diabetes.

It's the most common cause of vision loss and blindness in people of working age.

Diabetes is also responsible for most cases of kidney failure and lower limb amputation (other than accidents).

People with diabetes are up to five times more likely to have cardiovascular disease (such as a stroke) than those without diabetes

How can you prevent
type 2 diabetes?
• Eat a healthy, balanced diet

• Lose weight (if you're overweight) and maintain a healthy weight

• Stop smoking (if you smoke)

• Drink alcohol in moderation

• Take plenty of regular exercise

NHS Recommendations to reduce the risk of type 2 diabetes:
Eat plenty of starchy carbs
Eat carbs with a low GI
Avoid high GI foods (particularly between meals)
Eat regular meals (especially breakfast)
Avoid unhealthy fats
Choose low-fat dairy products
Check food labels
Avoid fried and fast foods
Keep hydrated and avoid binge-drinking
Cardiovascular Disease
A group of problems, which occur when the heart and blood vessels aren't working the way they should. These include:

(hardening or furring of the arteries)- Plaque builds up in the artery walls making it harder for blood to flow through thus increasing blood pressure and eventually leading to a blood clot.

Heart Attack
- Stopped blood supply to the heart caused by a blood clot or other blockage.

- When the brain doesn't receive enough blood due to a clot or burst blood vessel

- When the blood supply to the muscles in the heart is restricted
Plaque Build-up

CVD- The Stats
In 2011, there were almost 160,000 deaths as a result of CVD. Around 74,000 of these deaths were caused by coronary heart disease, which is the UK's biggest killer.

Most deaths from heart disease are caused by heart attacks. In the UK, there are about 103,000 heart attacks each year.

There are also around 152,000 strokes in the UK each year, resulting in more than 41,000 deaths.

Preventing CVD
Stop smoking
Reduce blood pressure
Reduce body weight
Drink moderate amounts of alcohol
Reduce salt intake
Eat plenty of fruit and veg
Eat starchy carbs and low GI varieties
Choose low-fat dairy products
Eat lean meat, fish, eggs, beans and other non-dairy sources of protein
Consume only a small amount of foods high in fat or sugar
Occurs when the cells in the body start growing abnormally

Cancer- The Stats
Cancer is a very common condition. In 2011, almost 331,500 people in the UK were diagnosed with cancer.

More than one in three people will develop some form of cancer during their lifetime.

In the UK, the four most common types of cancer are:
•breast cancer
•lung cancer
•prostate cancer
•bowel cancer

In 2011, these types of cancer accounted for over half (53%) of all new cases.

Cancer experts estimate that maintaining a healthy bodyweight, making changes to our diet and taking regular physical activity could prevent about one in three deaths from cancer.

In particular consumption of too much red and processed meat (such as burgers, sausages and ham) and insufficient consumption of fruit and vegetables is known to increase our risk of developing cancer.

Evidence also suggests that eating plenty of fibre can reduce the risk of bowel cancer, whilst also keeping our bowel healthy and preventing constipation.

More than a third of all cancers are preventable by reducing exposure to risk factors including tobacco, obesity, physical inactivity and sexually transmitted infections.

From childhood to our early 20s our bones grow and repair very quickly, our bone mineral density increases.

Once we reach the age of approximately 35 our bone mineral density starts to decrease.

Osteoporosis is a condition that affects the bones, causing them to become weak and fragile and more likely to break due to excessive reductions in bone density.


Calcium is a mineral needed by the body for healthy bones and teeth, as well as proper heart, muscle and nerve function. As the body cannot produce calcium we must consume it in foods.

• Dairy products—low fat or nonfat milk, cheese, and yogurt
• Dark green leafy vegetables—bok choy and broccoli
• Calcium fortified foods—orange juice, cereal, bread, soy beverages, and tofu products
• Nuts—almonds

Vitamin D
Plays an important role in protecting your bones and is required to enable your body to absorb calcium.

Vitamin D
Groups of the population at risk of not getting enough vitamin D are:

• people who are not exposed to much sun – e.g. people who cover up their skin when outdoors, or those who are housebound or confined indoors for long periods
• people who have darker skin
• those with malabsorption conditions such as coeliac disease

Supplements can be prescribed by doctors if they feel you are at risk of low vitamin D intake.

It's a common problem, estimated to affect around 1/4 adults and around 1/5 children aged 10 to 11 in the UK.

Being overweight or obese increases the risk of numerous diseases and health conditions including:

• Heart disease
• Certain cancers
• Type 2 diabetes
• High blood pressure
• Infertility
• Asthma
• Osteoarthritis
• Gallstone
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