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The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
Transcript of The Neolithic Revolution and Early Agricultural Societies
The Paleolithic Age
An era when travel for survival resources was more prominent and the climate was frigid.
The Neolithic Age
The era referred to the deliberate cultivation of particular plants as well as the taming and breeding of particular animals.
The climate changed, plant growth increased, and the population of animals rose.
A Stable Diet
Wheat and Barley were considered a stable diet for the Nomads.
Wheat and Barley grew in an abundance and did not decay and were able to be stored.
Deliberate Cultivation Revolution
more for less
domain over the earth
During the Neolithic Era
The New Stone Age (new tools)
The Agricultural Revolution
the people became dependent on the animals
the animals became dependent on the people
to a larger state
(milk, eggs, wool)
Snapshot of Agricultural Breakthroughs
were bred instead of hunted
Because humans lived closer to animals, they were prone to new diseases such as: small pox, flu, measles, chicken pox, malaria, tuberculosis, and rabies.
During the paleolithic age, the climate was cold and it was difficult to obtain the necessary resources for life, mainly food.
At the end of the paleolithic age, the environment changed to a warmer
"A chiefdom is a form of hierarchical political organization in non-industrial societies usually based on kinship, and in which formal leadership is monopolized by the legitimate senior members of select families or 'houses'. These elites form a political-ideological aristocracy relative to the general group. A chiefdom is thus led by a highly ranked incumbent of an inherited political role, chief: chiefs lead because of their ascribed status, not their achieved status." (wikipedia.org)
The largest woodland chiefdom in North America was called Cahokia.
Animism: The belief in the existence of individual spirits that inhabit natural objects and phenomena;The belief in the existence of spiritual beings that are separable or separate from bodies.
Artifact:An object produced or shaped by human craft, especially a tool, weapon, or ornament of archaeological or historical interest.
Foraging: The act of looking or searching for food or provisions.
Pastoralization: To make pastoral, especially to convert (an industrial society or economy) to an agricultural society or economy.
Slash and burn cultivation: Of or being a form of agriculture in which an area of forest is cleared by cutting and burning and is then planted, usually for several seasons, before being left to return to forest.
Specialization of labor
The Ice Age began 1600 years ago and ended about 1100 years ago, “and climatic conditions similar to those of our time prevailed.” (Strayer, 51)
The end of the last ice age was the same time homo sapiens migrated across the earth and made agriculture possible.
Hunting and climate change led to the extinction of large mammals.
The more stable weather conditions allowed flourishing of wild plants in many early crops.
“The Broad Spectrum Diet” was formed by eating various plants and both large and small animals.
When harvesting plants, the early people learned to cut back some plants to encourage the growth of their favorites.
Using such technologies, and benefiting from the global warming at the end of the last Ice Age, gathering and hunting peoples in the various places were able to settle down and establish more permanent villages, abandoning their nomadic ways and more intensively exploiting the local area.
The people lost a lot of the skills of their ancestors in settling down and had to support population growth.
Digging Stick/ Hoes
Sun-dried mud bricks
The Global Spread of Agriculture
Ways of the World (textbook)