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Transcript of Ottoman empire
● Military leaders have dominant role in state
● Turkic cavalry ----> warrior aristocracy
- granted control over land and peasant producers in annexed areas
- competed with Sultans
● Armies dominated by infantry divisions (Janissaries)
● Artillery and firearms vital to Ottoman success
-steady decline of aristocratic calvary
Military eventually has power to despose of sultans and decide which son will take the throne
The Ottomans became known as ruthless and cruel conquerers
Privileged militarism over most other aspects of public life, originated with the Turkish people
At the peak of the Ottoman Empire, Sultan Suleman the first doubled the size of the Ottoman Empire with his military prowess; he also improved the educational system, infrastructure, and he supported Islam
Military played a dominant role in the state
By: Joe Mesmer, Jim Thorpe, Claire O'Connor, Jennalise Olson, and Olivia Johnson
Emerged in the 15th century
1st ruler was Osman
Ruled vast areas of the Mediterranean and Middle Eastern regions; took parts of the Byzantine Empire and Europe
United Asians, Africans and Europeans under the Turkish sultan based in Istanbul
The most successful and long-lasting of the gunpowder empires
Cosmopolitan capital at Constantinople combined disparate elements of territories
Cathedral of Saint Sophia converted to one of the grandest mosques
new mosques and palaces built throughout the city
●architectural advancements based on Byzantines
Sultans and powerful administrators builts mansons, rest houses, religious schools, hospitals, private and public gardens to beautify the capitol
-Ottoman writers compare capitol to paradise
Capitol stretched along both sides of Bosporus (straight between the Mediterranean and Black Seas)
Bazaars filled with merchants and travelers from Europe and Malaya
Offered spices from East Indies, ivory from Africa, slaves and forest products from Russia, carpets from Persia
Turkish language preferred for poets and historians
Were committed and devout Muslims
Had a very high religious tolerance
The millet system: a legal system which defined people according to their religion, in keeping with several schools of Islamic law
Jews and Christians in the empire had many legal protections to worship in their own faiths
Restrictions were placed on non-Muslims regarding dress, housing, and tax payments
Life for Jews and Christians in the Ottoman Empire was far better than it was for non-Christians in European countries
Suleymaniye- mosque built at the behest of the most successful sultan Suleyman the Magnificent (r. 1520-1566)
“Nowhere was so much beauty, internal and external, to be found united, and that in the whole of Christian Europe there was a not a single edifice that compared to this”
The elite fighting corps were called the Janissaries
Those of the janissaries that were highly educated became viziers
Pashas or beys, were responsible for collecting taxes and making sure that peace and stability reigned in the hinterland
Janissaries succeeded because of incomparable training, skill with a variety of weapons, and the backing of gunpowder-fueled cannon power in an era when few of their enemies had access to such weaponry
Janissaries were legally slaves but often enjoyed vast estates, tax privileges, excellent marriage ties, and close contact with the royal household
Each great city had its own Janissary Neighborhood
In 1361 the ottomans conquered the second most powerful Byzantine city, Adrianople
By 1453, the Ottomans had taken over all the remaining territories of the Eastern Christian Empire except for the capital of Constantinople
great idea right here
Wow, that sarcasm tho.
Ottomans did not succeed in defeating the Viennese, and from that moment in 1529, their expansion was halted.
1543 the Ottomans conquered Constantinopole, the capital of the Byzantine Empire, present day Istanbul
● Eclipsed in the 16th century on the sea
-defeated by Spanish and Venetian fleets at Lepanto in 1571
● Launched assault on N. Africa; claiming land for Islam
The Ottomans tried to capture the island of Cyprus, which worried the Europeans who fought and won at the Battle of Lepanto
The Turks slaughtered more than 1 million Armenians in the Armenian genocide
1571 the Spanish venetian fleets defeat the Ottomans at Lepanto
Centuries prior to the ottomans rise to power there were Turkic speaking people from central asia.
These Turkic speaking people played key roles in Islamic civilization, these roles included soldiers and administrators. Often providing service to the Abbassid caliphates.
Economy geared towards warfare and expansion
Merchant and artisan class makes up sizable portion of population
Regime closely regulated commercial exchanges and handicraft production
Very high taxes were imposed on conquered peoples, which led to rebellion
The Ottoman Empire was ruled by one family for over 7 centuries
In Greece, the Ottomans took young males to work for the dynastic family and young girls to work in the Sultan's harem, which led to rebellions
The Turkish government denies that the Armenian Genocide ever existed- the Armenian Genocide has went unremembered and unnoticed in history
Coffeehouses- place where men gather to smoke tobacco, gossip, do business, play chess
-pivotal to social life
- poets and scholars could congrgate, read works aloud, debate about politics and philosophy
Turkish language is preferred by poets and historians
Lost control over East Mediterranean
poor administration & opposition to Muslim rule spread throughout the empire and weakened the control of the Turks
Portuguese naval victories in Indian Ocean -----> decline of Ottoman fleets
Merchants and tax collectors lose critical revenue
Large amounts of silver flow in from Peru and Mexico
-Set off long term inflationary trend that ruined finaces more
Collapse of Safavid dynasty brings hope for revival
No scientific, technological, or commercial transformations
Belief that what was happening in Europe was unimportant = major cause of decline
Considerable legacy in poetry, ceramics, carpet manufactoring, and ARCHITECTURE; beautiful mosques
The mongols attacked! The mongols had crippled the Seljuk Turkic Kingdom, but did not rule.
This opened the way for ottomans to step in and seize power
Lead by Osman the ottoman people dominated all opposition and in a few decades began the Ottoman empire centered around Anatolia.
World War 1 destroyed the Ottoman Empire when the Ottomans fought on the loosing side of the war, in 1923 The Ottoman Empire became a Republic
Sultan Suleman the Magnificent
Our project is obviously the best one here guys
Wait are we done?
Still cant believe you guys rejected these backgrounds