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The Impacts of Climate Change in Africa

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Michelle Wolodarsky

on 5 October 2012

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Transcript of The Impacts of Climate Change in Africa

Climate Change And Its effects on Africa Food insecurity Water issues Why is Africa so vulnerable to Climate Change? Agriculture How Has the Climate Changed? Unprecedented climate has been seen in the last century. Human-induced pollution is to blame. It has caused events such as:
warm periods
rise in sea levels
rise in Carbon Dioxide emissions
extreme weather conditions But. . . dependence on rained agriculture
High levels of poverty
Low levels of human and physical capital
Poor infrastructure. . . Africa is the continent that contributes the Least to global warming However its Make it highly damaged by Climate Change Climate change will impact
humans
animals
vegetation Impacts on Humans The population of Africa is very vulnerable This is because all of the countries in it are LEDCS. Climate Change is a fundamental threat to people's livelihoods. In Africa there is a degree of change higher than the global average
high levels of forest and agricultural dependency
low adaptive capacity of the population. All due to POVERTY Will all be affected by Climate Change water agriculture food natural resources development of coastal zones Water is needed in agriculture, for domestic use and hydroelectric power. Many countries in Africa already suffer from water stress. There is no access to secure water supplies. Ongoing water conflict where water is scarce. Increasing population will only make the problem worse. Prediction of 1,500 million by 2050 Climate change is reducing lakes Ziway Shala basin of Ethiopia has seen a lowering of 50 m Shorelines of lakes like Chad Victoria will recede too. River flows are also predicted to decrease along with the melting of the tropical glaciers in East Africa. Lack of water will contribute to forest degradation. (Kenya) The snow of Mt. Kilimanjaro will continue to melt till its gone. Gran majority of African countries are dependent on agriculture. There will be a longer growing season, affecting production. 3/4 of Africa's agriculture is rain-based. Rain-based yields will reduce by 50% by 2020. = economic loss and death. Agricultural losses will be most severe in
the Sahel
East Africa
South Africa Economic losses Sub-Saharan Africa's production will drop. By 2050: Rice -14% Wheat -22% Maize -5% = Great economic struggle recurring droughts have been occurring in Africa's great cattle regions. (Ethiopia-Kenya-Somalia boarder) food security is measured by four dimensions:
food availability
food accessibility
food utilisation
food systems Decline of agricultural production + difficulty to access = food shortages if the climate continues to change: 70% of population (sub. farmers) will not be able to feed themselves. by 2050 in Sub-Saharan Africa:
The number of calories per day will fall to 500
the amount of children affected by malnutrition will rise to 52 million Plagues will threaten food supplies. Health Climate change will cause the death rate to increase: Warmer conditions allow diseases to spread easily. Water-born diseases will flourish. Heat waves kill many. (longer or more intense wet periods) Areas that used to be too cold for mosquitoes' reproduction are now warm enough . Animal life Vegetation animals of Africa Habitats and ecosystems are changing How is animal life being affected by the change in climate? Loss of woodlands, savannas and meadows. Almost extinct species Impact on the environment Africa contains 1/5 of all the world's species of plants and animals. It also has a wide range of land. from grasslands, to mountains, To forests and oceans. How Would climate change affect Africa's vegetation? Changes in climate = extinction of some species. vegetation shift: in Sahel. Woodlands giving way to grass lands. In Kruger national park they are in danger of loosing 60% of their species. King Portea South Africa's national flower. The Dragon Tree. animals migrate to where the conditions suit them ecosystems change Wild animals wander into private property and kill cattle or are killed themselves. humans and other animals are infected by disease. Future of Africa very hard to work against climate change in the conditions Africa is in. Foreign investment World Bank operations to assess the water situation in Africa. Develop using new green technologies, away from carbon based industries. Increase water availability to all of the population. Conservation policies to protect wildlife Investment in services to develop and adapt Africa into the modern world. Polices of forest restoration and management.
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