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Cell Structure and Function

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krysta ortiz

on 25 September 2014

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Transcript of Cell Structure and Function

Prokaryotic v. Eukaryotic
Cell Structure and Function
Animal Cells
Plant Cells
Endosymbiont Theory
Tight Junctions
Limit the passage of molecules and ions through the space between cells.
receptor-mediated endocytosis (apical)
exocytosis (basolateral)
Example: Epithelia of the human lung
The epithelial cells of the human lung express a growth stimulant, called heregulin, on their apical surface and its receptors on the basolateral surface.
if the sheet of cells becomes broken, heregulin can reach its receptors. The result is an autocrine stimulation of mitosis leading to healing of the wound.
Several disorders of the lung
the chronic bronchitis of cigarette smokers
cystic fibrosis
Surface is a critical interface between the organism/cell and its environment.
Exchange of materials often occurs through diffusion.
This type of exchange is a passive process, and imposes constraints upon the size of a single-celled organism or cell.
Materials must be able to reach all parts of a cell quickly
Cell Surface Area
Limits to Cell Size
Bacterial Cells
Gap Junctions
Intercellular channels that permit the free passage of ions and small molecules between cells
permit changes in membrane potential
The action potential in heart (cardiac) muscle flows from cell to cell providing the rhythmic contraction of the heartbeat.
At some electrical synapses in the brain, gap junctions permit the arrival of an action potential at the synaptic terminals to be transmitted across to the postsynaptic cell without the delay needed for release of a neurotransmitter.
As birth approaches, gap junctions between the smooth muscle cells of the uterus enable coordinated, powerful contractions to begin.
Several inherited disorders of humans such as
certain congenital heart defects and
certain cases of congenital deafness
Localized patches that hold two cells tighly together. They are common in epithelia
Fine strands of cytoplasm that extend through the pores in the cell wall connecting the cytoplasm of each cell with that of its neighbor
Cell Junctions
Bacterial Cells
Full transcript