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Chemistry, genetics, body systems, physics, weathering/erosion/deposition, ecology, earth/space

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on 28 May 2010

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Transcript of Cain4-19

World of Science Ecology weathering, erosion & deposition Physics Body Systems Genetics Chemistry This is our solar system,
where eight planets orbit around the sun. Though in our solar system,
the only place that can sustain
life is our Earth As the Earth travels on its revolution around the sun,
the Earth rotates. The Earth's rotation also makes the seasons.
In each season there is a solstice or an equinox.
Summer solstice is when daytime is longer than night,
winter solstice is when nighttime is longer than day.
The equinoxes are when day and night are almost equal. Sometimes lunar or solar eclipses accur due to a
certain alignment of the Earth, the sun, and the moon. There are successions that occur in each biome.
In primary succession, where there is no soil to begin
succession, there are pioneer
species, who do not need soil
to survive. A stage when a
community has reached a stable
level is called a climax community. In biomes, there is weathering,
erosion, and deposition. Weathering, erosion and deposition though,
cannot happen without forces. Force is a push or a pull. With it, you can perform work. When you travel a certain distance for a certain period of time, in a certain destination, you can find you average speed, your velocity, and your acceleration Formulas
Speed = distance/time
Velocity = speed + direction
Acceleration = (final speed - initial speed)/ time When you are driving, you set the car into motion. Before you started driving, the car had potential energy. When you drive your car down the driveway, you change that energy to kenetic energy and your car emits heat. The energy though, is not destroyed after it was used, states the law of conservation of energy. Earth & Space On our Earth, there are many biomes, such as the temperate rain forest. Our body systems are made out of billions of cells Our cells undergo mitosis. Mitosis is the process of cell division, when the nucleus, of the cell is divided into two identical nuclei. During the interphase of cell divisions, the chromosomes (which contains DNA) in the nucleus duplicates.
When new organisms are born, they undergo meiosis. When traits are passed from parent to child, you can use a Punnett square to find out the probability of some traits based on the alleles of the parent's. Traits can be dominant or recessive. If the paired alleles match, it is a homozygous pair. If the pair doesn't match, than it is heterozygous. These alleles, dominant or recessive can determind one's genotype (genetic make-up) or phenotype (physical make-up.) But what is smaller than a cell? All matter is made out of atoms. These atoms contain a nucleus, neutrons, protons, and electrons. All matter has physical and chemical properties. Physical properties can be observed with or without physical change, as long as the composition of the material is not changed. Chemical properties can only be obseved by after the composition of the material through a chemical change. Chemical changes are irreversible... That is why you should only OBSERVE the physical properties of this presentation. You will not physically or chemically (or even mentally) destroy- There are two types of weathering: physical and chemical weathering. In physical weathering, the composition of the mineral is not changed, while in chemical weathering it is.
Weathering creates new soil with humus that will help plants grow in a biome. After rock is weathered away it forms sediments. These sediments are eroded. A forces of erosion is gravity, which can cause mass movement. Forces such as glaciers deposit outwash, material leftover after the glacier melts. One force of weathering and erosion is water. When it rains, the water flows as runoff and can be collected in a drainage basin. The water can also flow through permeable rock in the ground(which contains connecting pores) until it meets impermeable rock, where it is groundwater. But the ability to do work is when our body systems work together, wether it is to move muscles or digest food. The heart is divided into four chambers: two atriums and two ventricles. The heart has three types of circulation: coronary (within the heart), pulmonary (between the heart and the lungs), and systematic (to the rest of the body). When you inhale your diaphragm contracts increasing the increasing the volume in the lungs. The air travels through your nasal cavity, down you pharynx, and through the trachea. The trachea then divides into two bronchies which is then divided into bronchioles which contains small sacs called alveoli. Oxygen and carbon dioxide is diffused into the blood. The lymphatic system function is to drain excess tissue fluid, or lymph. It also provides defense against infection through lymphocytes. The excretory system consists of mainly the kidneys. The kidney is made out of millions of nephrons which filters the blood. The wastes is then transported into the bladder through the ureters, one from each kidney. The bladder stores the urine until it can be released through the urethra. Digestion starts when the food enters the mouth and chewing starts- this is mechanical digestion. The saliva moistens the food. The food is moved to the stomach through the esophagus and muscle contractions, known as peristalsis. The stomach chemically digests the food and turns it into chyme. The food moves to the duodenum, where nutrients is absorbed by villi. The large intestine absorbs water and minerals. Waste is expelled through the anus. The skeletal system provides support and protection for the body, as well as help with movement. This system consists of bones connected by joints and ligaments. Bones are surrounded by periosteum. Cartilage reduces friction and acts as a shock absorber. The muscular system provides movement with the help of the skeletal system. The system consists of two main types of muscles: voluntary and involuntary. In those two groups, there are cardiac (involuntary and only found in the heart), smooth (involuntary and makes up most organs), and skeletal (voluntary and helps with movement.) Tendons connect bones and muscles. Skin, the largest organ of the body, belongs to the integumentary system. The epidermis (top part of skin) is made up of dead skin cells, pushed up from the dermis. The dermis is the second layer of skin containing blood vessels, living skin cells and nerves. Melanin can also be found in the dermis, which determines your skin tone. The central nervous system (CNS) includes the brain and the spinal cord. The brain is made of neurons and controls most body systems. The cerebellum controls voluntary movements, muscle tone, balance. The cerebrum, the largest part of the brain, is where memery is stored, movement are controlled, and senses are interpreted. The peripheral nervous system are nerves that extend away from the CNS. It connects the brain and spinal cords to other parts of the body. Nerve impulses are created by the release of neurotransmitters by the dendrites. The neurotransmitters move through the synapse, the space between a dendrite and an axon, and is received by an axon.
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