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Drug Abuse and Addiction: Stimulants

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on 2 April 2014

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Transcript of Drug Abuse and Addiction: Stimulants

62
ECG
bpm
Quiz
Our Plan
What is drug abuse and addiction?
What is a stimulant?
What are some common stimulants?
Can you Identify the stimulants?

According to DSM IV-R
Brain Pathways: VTA-Nucleus Accumbens
Crystal Meth
-highly addictive stimulant

-methamphetamine in the form of rock-like crystals

-cooked in dangerous labs
-combination of methamphetamines and ephedrine

-commonly heated and then smoked

- can also be injected or snorted

-similar high to cocaine

-instant euphoria, increased energy and extreme alertness

-users report addiction after 1 use
Drug Abuse and Addiction: Stimulants
What is "Substance Dependence?"
General Knowledge
Cocaine
Short/Long-term Symptoms
Treatment
Stimulant
Coco plant
Powder cocaine vs crack
Street names
Snorted, injected
Addictive
Behavioral therapies
Cognitive behavioral therapy
Contingency management
Matrix Model
Other medication
Vaccines
What happens when you become dependent on a drug?
Dopamine (and other monoamines)
Stimulants directly increase mesolimbic DA transmission by inhibiting DAT, NET, SERT
fatigue
depression
disturbed sleep patterns
Repeated paranoia
high body temperature
irregular heartbeat
cardiovascular failure or seizures.
Chemical Messenger
Pleasure
extra dopamine is reabsorbed into the
presynaptic neuron
by the DOPAMINE ACTIVE TRANSPORTER (DAT)
Pathway of a drug
by mouth
intranasal consumption
inhalation
intravenously
Impulsivity
Compulsivity
increased: alertness
attention
energy
General Knowledge
Ecstasy/MDMA
Effects of Ecstasy/MDMA
Increased Blood Pressure
Feeling of Euphoria
Dehydration
Muscle Cramps
Dizziness
Panic Attacks
Overexertion
Heat Exhaustion

General Information
Psychostimulant
Amphetamine class of drug
Average dose is 80-160 mg
Street Names
Usually taken in pill form
Uses/Reasons for Use
Entactogenesis
"Touching Within"
All is right with the world
At peace, happy
Empathogenesis
Emotional closeness to others
Paired with a breakdown of personal communication barriers
Enhancement of the senses
All senses are amplified or altered in some way
Users will sometimes run their hands over surfaces and smell everything
Major Psychological Effects
Self Psychotherapy
Catalyst for a variety of psychotherapeutic effects
Effective way to get patients to "open up"
Can bring up repressed memories/feelings
Substitute for "Speed" or other stimulants
Facilitate activities that require:
Concentration
Creativity
Motivation/Energy

Long Term Effects
Can be addictive for some people
"Magic" wears off after many uses
Brain Damage/Memory Problems
Effects
Meth Mouth
-severe decay and loss of teeth
-tooth fracture/ enamel erosion
-specific causes are unknown
-combination of:
-xerostomia (dry mouth) and bruxism (grinding of the teeth)
-other possible causes:
-poor nutrition
-increased sugar intake
-lack of dental hygiene

Causes
Treatment
-treatment is extremely difficult
-can be dangerous for active meth users
-cardiac risk
-prescription fluoride to fight tooth decay
-drugs which increase saliva
Short Term
Long Term
-loss of appetite

-change in sleeping patterns

-severe mood swings

-unpredictable behavior

-tremors/convulsions

-elevated blood pressure

-irregular heartbeat
Signs of Abuse and
Addiction
-dilated pupils
-rapid weight loss
-eye twitching
-lack of appetite
-hyperactivity
-repetitious behavior

-feeling of bugs on skin

-body sores

-meth mouth

-psychosis

-hallucinations

-brain damage

-stroke

-coma
Treatment
Nights of no sleep and a million sunrises…blood red like my noses lining. I was wild. An unfettered maniac; a dopamine dinosaur; dangerous to myself and others – not intentionally but just the same… “Reckless to the point of selfishness” Something’s wrong here…I’m Driving 90mph in icy conditions…no time to spare…snowstorm outside; snowstorm inside…..Memories of flashing lights, hot in the cold night…angry lights, disorienting lights…lights at the end of the tunnel….what’s wrong? Something’s wrong….memories of tearing up the schools fields on North Campus…not knowing of the grass beneath the snow, certainly no athlete….I threw the truck in in circles and circles and circles spinning out of control ….30mph and 75 feet sideways…..laughing like well….maniacs, hyenas in the night….memories of deer, reflectors, guardrails, signs, broken down cars, rocks, taxis, trees, and any and all headlights in the rearview….all these things melt + morph into police cruisers when viewed through paranoid eyes of a maniac……The eyes and brain betray you, mislead you….the world is after all a dangerous place, a hostile place….SO WATCH OUT!!! BEWARE!!! COP!!! IS IT?!YES!?NO!?YES!? NO ITS JUST A SIGN…and so on and so forth for hours of white-knuckled driving…..sweaty palms and roving eyes…..watch out…something’s wrong…..what’s wrong? What’s WRONG SOMETHINGS VERY WRONG!?
-very difficult
-affects the mind and body
-symptoms include:
-confusion
-paranoia
-strange sensations on the skin
-insomnia



Withdrawal
Prescriptions/Programs
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/books/NBK64328/
-detox programs
-rehabilitation centers
- aggressive care regimen
- center that knows meth
-mental health services
http://thebrain.mcgill.ca/
Street Names
http://www4.ncsu.edu/~rjdoming/
http://www.drugabuse.gov/publications/teaching-packets/neurobiology-ecstasy/section-ii/6-short-term-adverse-effects
http://bisc004.tripod.com/x.html
http://thelisteningcentre.wordpress.com/resources/sport/drug-facts/ecstacy/
http://archives.drugabuse.gov/NIDA_Notes/NNVol16N5/Conference.html
~reward driven
~avoidance driven
DAT inhibition
available DA in the Brain increases
restimulates reward pathway
connects to regions of the brain that control  memory and behavior
reinforces the drug seeking behavior
increases the likelihood of relapse
How Prevalent is Cocaine?
5.2% of 8th graders
3.5% of 10th graders
For the past three years (since I was 20 years old), I have been taking _____. It started off as one ________ in a UK nightclub, but within a couple of months I was loving the stuff, taking it every Friday and Saturday night, normally 2-3 _____ on a Friday, and 3-4 on a Saturday. I found that I needed more on a Saturday than a Friday to bring me back to the same level as the night before. The first year or so of taking the drug was made up of fantastic experiences, and the comedowns weren't too bad. Sometimes I felt tired and worn out but my mental state was OK. A year or so later things had begun to deteriorate. I was still taking ______ on a regular basis, but more out of dependency than fun - I felt I could only enjoy myself on _______ and nothing else.

During the week I would feel depressed and very wound up. I wasn't sleeping properly and was having anxiety attacks. I found the only way to try to keep myself occupied in the weekday evenings and to aid sleep, was to go drinking. A bad move, a year later I was put on anti-depressants (Prozac) and my blood-pressure was high (dangerously so when having taken ____ even up to 4 days before), I was suffering pains around the kidney area, and my memory was a complete mess.

I tell myself I have tried to stop, and tell myself now as I write this that last weekend was the last time. Maybe it will be, but I'm sure it won't. In recent months I have tried to change my social life, hanging out with the few other friends I have that don't take the drug (I could name probably 50 people I know, and who have been out clubbing with or whatever, who take the drug once a week or so). I have began to be able to enjoy myself more without it, but still end up taking _______ every 2-3 weekends or so, and every time the depression or anxiety begins to kick in I tell myself it's the last time.

http://www.addiction-treatment.com/research/cocaine/

http://www.nursestip.com/cocaine-crack-users.html
http://paradigmmalibu.com/drug-addiction-treatment-symptoms-causes/

http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/123441/cocaine
What made me realize that my family was abnormal was when I was 11 my mom told me a story of when she was giving birth to me. While she was in labor my father was watching my brother which was two at the time and she said he was high as a kite. In the hospital, since he couldn't shoot up or smoke it, he put a full _______ inside of his coffee so he could stay awake. While he was being very irresponsible and stupid, my brother grabbed the cup of coffee and drank half of it, while he was two years old. This deeply disturbed me and probably haunted my brother for years. My mother told me numerous crazy stories about her and my fathers _____ addiction lifestyle. Like how my dad would stay up for weeks on end and get so paranoid he would barricade himself in a closet and duck tape knives to his hands thinking it would keep him safe somehow. After I heard all of these, I vowed to myself that I would never try or even touch ______, but I was in for a big unforeseen disappointment.
I first smoked weed when I was 8 years old, with one of my older sisters. This was the first time that I got introduced to any type of drug and I really enjoyed it. When people say that marijuana is gateway drug, I honestly think it depends on the age and situation, but in this case it was. Over the years I tried multiple types of drugs including pills, hallucinogens, and inhalants. Then, when I was about fifteen and a half, I tried _____for the first time with a really good friend, that I considered a brother to me for the longest time, but I refuse to even acknowledge his existence anymore because of the messed up things he has done. When I first tried it, I smoked it in a oil burner and it was so euphoric I can barely explain the feeling. I did it on and off for the next year and kept telling myself that I'm not addicted and I only do it every once in a while. Then when I was about 16 and a half and I found out that I just had a daughter. I had so much stress, hate and anxiety built up I started spinning out of control. I started smoking the drug daily and stealing from my family to get money so I could get more so I could at least project that I have a little bit of happiness inside my cold heart.
So I have been using _____ for the past 6-7 months pretty much daily. Now I've been sober for the past week and half, I just went cold turkey. The night terrors I have every night since I've been sober are unbearable. I even question my sanity almost everyday because of the crazy thoughts and dreams I have. Plus on the regular I get this feeling that I'm not loved and all hope is lost.
Statistics
Nearly 25 million people worldwide are estimated to have used amphetamine, or methamphetamine in the past 12 months.
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